Thursday, June 30, 2011

The Puritan colonization

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During the great migration that spanned from 1620 to the early 1640s more than 16,000 Puritans arrived in Massechusetts many were from East Anglica, an area of northeast England. Many of the Puritan settlers came as whole families, sometimes as whole villages, leaving England in droves. The Puritans were rooted in the belief that to do the Lords work they must set themselves as an example for all Christians, their first task being the establishment of “a city on a hill” much like the old testament.

Being in America posed problems for the Puritans, one of which being they still wanted to be part of the Church of England. One othe problem being that there was no concrete plan for the establishment of their church and services. Eventually, the Puritans adopted congregationalism. Without need of interference and without bishops the people worshipped together as one body and as one church. Congregational churches bound the community with faith but not all who lived in the area were automatically part of the church, some needed to confess their faith to a member of the congregation to recive full group membership.


Soon after arriving in May of 1661, men like John Winthrop changed the joint-stock company's business plan into a governmental framework. Freemen, men who were of age and part of a congregation, could vote for magistrates to the Court of Assistants. As the isolated puritan settlements grew confliocts over land arose and Lawes and Liberties , a code of laws, was set out as will of the General court.


In 1661 the arrival of Roger Williams, a separatist, became a proverbial fly in the puritains ointment. Williams thought that it was not up to the magistrates to punish people due to their religious veiws. Following all of Williams attempts to come to a settlement, he was exiled. Williams would later settle and found Providence in present day Rhode Island. Another threat to the puritan way came with Anne Hutchinson whom emmigrated to the colonies with her husband and children following John Cotton. Hutchinson followed a movement called Antinomianism, wherein all one needed was faith in God and Christ and no need to follow moral law. After examination and cross examination at the hands of the magistrates, Hutchinson was also exiled and sent to Rhode Island and the area of Portsmouth when she confessed that she need not follow moral law.

As the communities grew four colonies were chartered and all but one survived through the American Revolution.


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Human Trafficking as a New Form of Slavery

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With the abolishment of slave trade in the early 18th century, no one would imagine that we would not be compelled to deal with such gory acts again, but the fact of the matter is that we live in a world where trends hardly die, but only recycle themselves into redefined manners to suite, and live amongst us for long periods of time.

Slavery has been no exception to this rule of mankind, gradually recycling itself, to suite the times we live in today, we have even found it suitable to give it more refined names, so that the situation does not look a devastating as it really is. Slavery as we know it today is Human Trafficking , this gross violation of human rights has rooted deeply and firmly in the very bane of human endeavors, that we then to over look the many effects that this ever-growing trade has on society.

Over the past year, over 700,000, and possibly as many as million people were bought, sold, transported and held against their own will in slave like conditions, unlike in the old day where this problem was mainly the transatlantic routing of people from Africa, this problem evolve to the global scale, becoming the fastest growing human right issue of our time. In this modern day slavery, human traffickers use treats, intimidation, and many times violence in the perpetration of their acts, forcing victims to engage in sex acts, or labor under conditions comparable conditions to that of slavery, for financial gains. Women, children and men, are trafficked into the international sex trade, for the purposes of prostitution, sex tourism, and other commercial sexual endeavors, this can be vastly seen all across many European societies today, also the high demand for cheap and easily available labor has helped to escalate the menace, bring about situations we find in so called Sweat shops, construction and agricultural setups. These practices often take diverse forms, rearing its head as in the abduction of children, and the absolution into government forces and rebel armies as seen in many war torn nations on the globe today, sale of women and children into domestic servitude and the use of children in the demoralizing act of street begging.

So prominent is the trend of human trafficking that it takes different forms in various geographical regions of the globe, but what is synonymous in all cases is the fact that they go on under our very nose, sometime we even become vices to these act, without us raising an eye to the situation.



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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Demons of Advertising

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Human nature has been easy to figure out throughout the years. This fact could turn out to have more cons attached to it than ever imagined. In the beginning advertising had its place. Advertising pushed patent medicines, filled a few pages of the Sears catalog, sponsored radio detective programs, acted as magazine filler, and eventually made it to television. The thirty second TV spot became the model. Now some advertisements have crossed the ethics line. The line between advertisement and entertainment are becoming nonexistent. Guerilla, stealth marketing, and product placement are the two main unethical agents in advertising.

Stealth by far is the most sneaky and unethical technic in advertising. Stealth marketing is sending actors to interact with real people and casually talk up a product. These actors do not wear a name tag or a logo shirt, they appear as normal people. A great example that would best explain stealth marketing would be the Sony-Ericsson company. They invented a new cellular phone with a built in camera. They hired a group of actors to walk around Times Square in New York City posing as tourist acting as newlywed couples on a honeymoon. They would go up to strangers and ask them to take their picture. After a few minutes the unsuspecting person would ask how to take the picture. Then they receive a live demonstration on the new Sony phone. Of course the actors would explain where the got the phones and how great they are. Consequintly the sale of the phone tripled within one month of this advertising technique. The strangers leave thinking “what a nice couple and that was a cool phone.” Gary Ruskin, the executive director of Consumer Alert, said “its deceptive, its absolutely unethical to deceive people like this. In addition, its taking advantage of the kindness of strangers and thats pretty low.” One man that was told that the two people were actors said “I feel violated, I mean, I had a connection between the two people and then to find out that they are salesmen!”

Another great example of stealth marketing would be the company of Tuwaka. The company came out with a new version of a spiced rum. However the problem was that they were going up against a fierce market, so they turned to stealth marketing. In this scenario a semi-attractive male actor orders a Tuwaka drink in front of other male customers to another attractive female actor. Of course she comes over and they hit it off. He gets her phone number and then she leaves. Just about 0% of the time the other male customers ask “how did you that?“ His response usually includes how women love that drink and thats how he gets dates. How far are these companies going to take this marketing technique? In this instance stealth marketing is using basic human desire. Is that ethical?

The second unethical marketing system is guerilla marketing. Guerrilla is defined by Word Book Online Encyclopedia as “Guerilla warfare, pronounced guh RIHL uh, is warfare by roving bands of fighters who torment the enemy with ambushes, sudden raids, and other small scale attacks. Guerialls may be organized, but usually fight in small bands. They most often operate behind enemy lines and use hit and run tactics and sabotage to surprise and torment the enemy. They take advantage of natural features of the terrain-such as forests, hills, lakes, and rivers-to conceal and launch attacks.” Companies started to realize that conventional marketing was being spotted a mile away. Consumers were becoming numb to conventional advertising. The marketing director decided to put the advertisements behind enemy lines in a sense. They had to disguise their ads so no one would know that in fact they were being sold a product.


A good example of guerrilla marketing would be Jojos Subs. Jojo of course had a better product and a better value than its competitor Subway. However Jojo did not have the marketing budget of Subway. One technique he used was putting flyers displaying a much better deal than they just purchased up on cars in front of subway. The customer would feel violated in a sense that they just spent more of their hard earned money than they had to. Another technique he used was sending people to subways and making complaints in front of potential customers. In the complaint the person would say he is going to Jojo for a better sub as well as a better deal. In a sense Jojo put someone behind enemy lines.

That example was on a small scale. A large corporation such as Nike has almost an unlimited budget when it comes to marketing. They have hired behavioral scientist to really get behind enemy lines. Many studies were conducted of many different groups. Now the marketing department were armed with a powerful tool. They knew exactly what group wanted what. Of course the obvious occurred, celebrity endorsements. What kid would not want to slam a basketball like Michael Jordan or hit a baseball like Ken Griffey Jr. On the Nike commercials they have just shots of Jordan and Griffey just performing their sports, but they are wearing Nike shoes. Playing on these emotions of children enabled Nike to sell a shoe for over $100 which only cost on average $ to make. Playing with such a influential minds is not ethical.

Alltel as used a different form of guerrilla marketing in the sense of setting up mall blitzes. They would set up a booth for free massages or manicures on the walls would be the logo boomerang, but there would not be an actual advertisement. Boomerang was their new pre-paid service geared toward college students. Alltel also hired people to go into public chat rooms on the Internet and ask about the new Alltel product Boomerang. Basicly just using these techniques to infect everyones curiosity. All these techniques end up on a 85% spike on the number of hits the Boomerange web site. Once again the large corporation used human nature of curiosity to sell the product.

In conclusion, the consumer should very careful when they receive an urge to purchase a new product. A consumer may never know if the had been a victim of guerrilla or stealth marketing. But as long as there are consumers companies will always try to find a new way to sell their products verse their competitors. Many large corporations say that there are no lines being crossed. They obviously havent been a victim of either one of these techniques.


WORKS CITED

Elias, Marilyn. Selling to Kids Blurs Ethical Picture. USA Today.

Fairclough, Gordon. Are Cigarette Ads in Magazines Angling for Teens? Wall Street Journal.

Gaines, Judith. Mind Games Psychologists Debate Ethics of Helping Sell to Children. Boston Globe.

Hohler, Bob. Philip Morris Agrees to Halt Magazine Ads. Boston Globe.

Alter, Jonathan. The Medias Meaty Meal. Newsweek.

Baker, Russ. The Squeeze. Columbia Journalism Review.

Kurtz, Howard. The Shock Market It Puts Bad News on the Map. Washington Post.

Maitre, Joachim, H. The Tilt of the News Liberal Bias in the Media. Current.

McClellan, Steve. Shaw Wants Media to Defend Themselves. Broadcasting & Cable.

Miller, Mark. Free the Media. The Nation.

Nussbaum, Bruce. The Myth of the Liberal Media. Business Week.


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How A Bill Becomes A Law

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America is known as the country of freedom, but if we had no established laws, Americans would not be as prosperous as we are today. The process of making laws, known as the legislative process, is governed by rules, laws and procedures. Although the legislative process is long and complex, all laws begin as simple ideas. When a member of Congress has an idea for a new law they present it as a bill, which is the most common type of legislation. The path of a bill, from the time it is just an idea to the time it arrives at the President’s desk for approval, is paved with many detours. A bill must be passed through both houses of congress, the House of Representatives or the Senate, in identical form, before it can be made a law. This is achieved through a step-by-step process that begins in either house.

When a bill originates in the House of Representatives the idea is presented to a representative. The Representative decides whether or not they want to sponsor the bill and introduce it to the rest of the house. If the Representative decides not to sponsor the bill, he sets it aside and does nothing, which is known as tabling the bill. Eventually the bill is forgotten about and dies. If they choose to sponsor it, they present the bill to the Chief Clerk of the House. The chief assigns the bill a number to keep track of it through this process. Then the bill is sent to the U.S. Government Printing Office to make copies and is returned to the house. The copies are dispersed to the rest of the Representatives and the bill goes through its first reading. The speaker then assigns a committee to further review the bill. The committee will put the bill through public hearings and work sessions where revisions and additions can be made. If there are additions made to the bill, it is reprinted and includes the new amendments. After it is reviewed the Committee Chair signs it. The revised bill goes through a second reading, and finally a third reading before the house can vote on it. The bill must receive the majority of the houses vote to be passed on to the other house.

Once the House of Representatives passes the bill, it then goes to the Senate, where it follows the same process of revisions. The senate president assigns the bill to a committee, where it goes through the same three readings that it went through in the House of Representatives. Once again, the bill must receive the majority of the houses vote to be passed.

The bill must be passed in identical form from both houses in order for it to be passed on to the president. Even if one word is changed, it cannot move on to the President; it must go to the conference committee. The conference committee is made up of members of both houses, which come together to work out any differences between the different versions of the bill. The revised bill is then sent back to each house for final approval. The clerk from the introducing house then certifies the final version. The bill is then printed by the U.S. Government Printing Office and is now enrolled. The Speaker of the house and the vice president sign the enrolled bill and it is sent for presidential consideration.

Once the president receives the bill he can do one of three things. He can choose to sign the bill and make it a law, or the bill can become a law if the president does not sign it within ten days while Congress is still in session. If Congress adjourns before the ten days are up and the president has still not signed the bill, this is know as a “pocket veto” and the bill does not become a law. The president can also veto the bill and send it back to congress with a note that lists the reasons for the veto. The house, which originated the legislation, can attempt to override the veto by a vote of two-thirds of those present. If both houses override the veto, the bill will become a law.

In order for a bill to get to presidential consideration it must go through this step-by-step process beginning in either house. An identical form of the bill must be passed and approved by both houses and then approved by the president. The law making process is long and complex but the chief function of Congress is for making these laws to keep America as successful as it is today.


Works Cited

Congress for Kids. Home Page. http//www.congressforkids.net/executivebranch.htm

Congress for Kids. Home Page. http//www.congressforkids.net/makinglaws.htm

How A Bill Becomes A Law. Home Page. http//www.dccouncil.washington.dc .us/how.html

How A Bill Becomes A Law. Project Vote Smart. Home Page. http//www .vote-smart.org/ce/congresstrack/billtolaw.phtml

House of Representatives Fact sheet Making Laws. Home Page. 5 June 16. http// www.politics.com/parliament/factsheets/07makinglaws.htm


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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Eskimos

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Although these people of the north are widely called Eskimos, the name they use for themselves is Inuit, which means simply the people. It was apparently the Cree Indians of Canada who gave the Inuit the name Eskimo, which means eaters of raw meat. If so, it was a mislead, because the Inuit care no more for meat that has not been cured or otherwise prepared than does anyone. By the late 20th century the term Eskimo came to be viewed as pejorative and was widely replaced by the term Inuit. There are about 110,000 Inuit living in the Arctic region, in a belt stretching from Greenland in the east, across northern Canada and Alaska, to eastern Siberia.

Through the centuries during which they lived without much contact with outsiders, the Inuit developed a fairly static way of life that suited their environment. Now the traditional life is fading as more and more Inuit become integrated into the economic and political structures of the countries in which they live. Only a person of great ingenuity and endurance could have survived in a region that is frozen under ice and snow for six to nine months a year, an area in which most vegetable foods were unobtainable and where trees exist in only a few marginal areas. The Inuit relied for their food supply on fish, sea mammals, and the few land animals of the Arctic. In the winter a dozen or more families congregated in a small community, and each morning the men would set out to harpoon any seals that appeared coming up for air in the few open lanes of water. But in the spring the communities would break up. Some families pursued seals over the open water in kayaks, skin-covered, one-person boats much like canoes. Other families hunted whales or fish. In the summer most families hunted caribou and other land animals. Then, as winter drew on, the families would congregate together again, and the cycle of the year continued. It was never a completely uniform cycle, for it varied from region to region. When hunting land animals, the Inuit used the bow and arrow, replaced later by the rifle. Against sea mammals the weapon was the harpoon. Some groups of Inuit used rawhide nets to capture seals, but the nets were never adapted for fishing.

Traditional Inuit religion was quite similar to animism, a belief system frequently found among aboriginal populations. Inuit saw a spiritual force in every natural phenomenon including in beast, bird, and fish, in wind and snow and in stones and sticks. Each of these was viewed as having human characteristics. These spiritual forces were neither friendly nor hostile, but they could become dangerous if they were not respected. The souls of the Inuit dead went to join this world of spirits, and they could become hostile to their surviving relatives or to other Inuit. It was especially necessary never to offend the spirits of game animals, since they could bring on sickness or famine.

There was a fairly sharp division of labor between men and women. Men were the hunters and homebuilders, while women prepared the food, worked on skins, and made the clothing. Men and women, therefore, were so dependent on each other that no Inuit remained single. Some men occasionally took a second or even a third wife, especially if the first had no children. Some women occasionally had two husbands. Inuit were fond of children, and orphans normally found homes with relatives and were well treated. In a land where there were no vegetable foods or roads, a mother nursed her children and carried them everywhere on her back until they were about years old.

The only small example that the Inuit life has been adapting to the cultures that made contact with it over the centuries, is that Snowmobiles are replacing dogsleds.



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Hope for Peace (Matewan)

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In the film 'Matewan', created in 1987 by John Sayles demonstrates the struggle of Union workers for a better and appropriate working environment. The story of the coal mines of Matewan describes a clash between the owner and the workers. The Stone Mountain Company owns everything in the town of Matewan. The working conditions were harsh and the economic stresses on the workers are very brutal. With the unfair treatments and loss of skillful workers are free of doubt at the fact of not returning to work until demands are met. With different ethnicities coming together to overcome these hardships, there are many different approaches that the Union can make. With the help of Joe Kenehen, a Union organizer, these obstacles and trusts are overcome and built. To achieve the rights workers have to perform. There are many ways, but the Union that establishes in Matewan is forced to change tactics when the company pushes them top violence. With the Martyrdom of Hillard, a young boy, the Union’s approach to peaceful protest alters into the lat resort of violence.

The life of a coal miner is dangerous and hazardous. Many widowed wives of this town lost their husband by mining accidents, for example, Danny’s mother Elma Radner and Birdie Mae Tolliver, the woman by the train. Elma Radner tells the story on how her husband died by the cave-in of the mines. She describes how the men tried to survive by digging their way out with their bare hands, but sadly and tragically, they die with the mark of their bloody hands on the cave walls. With these unfair conditions and loss of friends, family, and money the miners start to speak up. The company still needs workers to carry on the jobs so they hired African-Americans and immigrants (“scabs”) to replace them with less pay. At first the Union is divided, the West Virginia miner vs. the “scabs”. The Virginia miners are afraid that they are here to break up the Union, so they exclude them from the Union. But Joe makes it clear that the Union is open to all and that by excluding them only makes this organization a club. The minds of the miners change when they thought Johnson, the leader of African-Americans workers would lead the “scabs” to work but their trusts are built by Johnson and the others walking out. The company will not stand for this, so they hire the Baldwin thugs to evict the families out of their homes. This is the start of the peaceful protest.

With their houses being evicted, the stores and houses belonging to the company they go in search of a new land to call their own. As the peaceful protest begins the company will not just watch, so they send a spy, C.E. Lively to infiltrate the organization, but later gets caught the message of Danny. When the strike is started the different ethnicities, African-American, immigrants, and Americans, start to learn about each other, their cultures and beliefs. They start to work together by building houses and tents for each other and playing a game like baseball that represents teamwork. They start to respect and watch out for each other which build up to the sense of safety that they feel when they are together. Even with the Sense of unity there are points that they do not get out to the company. They are not making a strong statement; this becomes a clash between Joe and the union members.

The sense of safety is tested by the shooting by the Baldwin thugs which the Union members can become easily targeted, luckily no one died. With a thread, represented by Joe holds the Union member from the verge of violence it is quickly broken off by this incident. But the pursuit of peaceful protest is changed by the martyrdom of Hillard, a young miner. Because of the cold nights outside of their houses they need coal to heat up the fire. Hillard and Danny go to the coal mine to get the coals. Unfortunately they are caught by the thugs which kills Hillard because he gave out dead miners name instead of the Union representatives. This pushes the Union to a violent act towards the company.

The violent protest starts when there is a shoot out in the town near where the railroad is located. This action gave a great sense of control because of the death of the Baldwin thug. Also, this set out a great statement to the company. But the loss is very dramatic. The shoot out cause many deaths of the thugs and innocent workers like Joe Kenehen and the sheriff. Because of the death of these determined workers their cause became known and this sent many examples for other future strikes in the Union.

At the end the preacher, Danny speaks of what happens after the death of these workers. He explains that they ended up back in the mines with a compromise of the company and the workers. Also he quotes, “The cause of the Union was a religion” that he began to believe in the purpose and the cause of the Union movement. Danny’s voice is older and huskier which explains that he’s telling his past and his experience in the Union. Also, this shows that he is telling his history to other people for future knowledge of this historical movement.


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Monday, June 27, 2011

Bad Drivers

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The “brakes need to be pressed” on bad drivers. To many people are involved in motor-vehicle accidents each year. The laws on these bad drivers need to be strengthened and enforced in order to protect each other. Driving laws for teens, DWI and DUI, aggressive and reckless driving and speeding is not good enough and enforced enough for the safety of others.

All you have to do as a teenager to obtain your driver’s licenses in the state of Virginia is hold your learners permit for 6 months, pass a written test, and get a few hours of road practice within the school or another program and pass a small road test. This does not prepare the teenagers for driving. They learn nothing about real life situations; how to respond to inclement weather, how to react to other drivers’ actions, and what to do in case of an accident. Many teenagers are ill prepared for driving.

“I don’t think the law should be so punitive as to keep someone from going to work or school. I don’t think everyone believes you should get one speeding ticket and you should lose your right to get to work and school.” Teens would still have the right to get to work and school, just not driving themselves. Walking, the buses, riding a bike, getting a ride, many options are still open to teens as modes of transport. Driving is not a right; it is a privilege. 1,157 teens have had their licenses revoked for various reasons. This still has not yet changed the amount of accidents and deaths caused by teens. (Ledford)

Drunk drivers are probably the worst drivers on the road. “On average, one person is injured every minutes in alcohol related accidents.” (Does America Need…). Many people consider that if all states changed their legal limit to 0.08, then 500 to 600 fatal accidents a year could be avoid. When drivers are drunk, they think that they are good drivers. They loose all inhibitions and the ability to think and perceive. Many also think that they are actually driving very well. Reaction time is slowed down greatly. Drunk drivers cause 8 percent of all traffic deaths. (Does America Need…). “There is a direct correlation between lower BAC limits and decreases in alcohol-related accidents.” (Does America Need…). BAC readings are sometimes unreliable, depending on the food eaten, or medication the person is currently taking. This is why some states are fighting to keep the standard and 0.10, instead of 0.08 BAC. More then 40 percent of teenage deaths are caused by car accidents, 8 percent of that are alcohol related.

Aggressive drivers are just as bad as drunk drivers are. Swerving in and out of lanes, speeding, and cutting people off. Who has not seen these drivers before? Aggressive drivers cause road rage. When one driver cuts of another, the driver that got cut off gets angry. He may just swear of honk the horn. Or he may take drastic measures and rear-end the driver that cut him off. Most states are now starting to crack down on aggressive drivers and road rage. Tickets and points on their licenses won’t help. They need to be stopped before it is too late. The laws that are already in place about road rage and aggressive driving are too weak and poorly enforced. Large fines and ever jail time should be issued for aggressive drivers and drivers with road rage.


Tied in with aggressive driving is speeding. People are always in a rush to get somewhere, and speed down the road. Sometimes, people race cars on the streets for enjoyment. These races can reach speeds up to 100 mph. percent of all drivers 15-4 involved in fatal crashes were speeding. (Eye Opening Statistics) Drinking and speeding are also related. Many teens that have been involved in speeding related crashes have been drinking. Males tend to speed more often the females. About 40 percent of males involved in crashes, were speeding. (Eye Opening Statistics) When a car reaches speeds above 80 mph, the driver tends to loose control. The slightest mistake in steering can cause the car to flip or spin out. Also, driving at high speeds, the driver has less reaction time. If a car or person goes out in front of the speeding car, chances are the driver in the car will not have enough time to react properly, and will usually cause an accident. “In states that increased the highway speed limit to 65 mph, the fatalities increased by 10%.” (Eye Opening Statistics) This proves that speed causes accidents, and the speed limits on the highways should be lowered. But just lowering the speed limit won’t help. The speed limit needs to be enforced to bring the number of accidents down.

Car accidents are one of the major causes of deaths in the US, especially among young people. To protect each other, the laws of driving need to be strengthened and enforced, or else more people will keep getting hurt and killed.



“Does America Need a National Standard on Drunk Driving?” April 2001 http//www.speakout.com/Issues/Briefs/110/.

“Eye Opening Statistics.” April 001 http//www.pastnh.org/stats.htm.

“FARS Web-Based Encyclopedia. April 2001 http//www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov/main.cfm.

Ledford, Joey. “Teen-Driving Dilemma Existing Laws Tough, but Pressure Mounts for More Restriction.” 1 March 001. 16 October 000. http//accessatlanta.com/partners/ajc/newsatlanta/laneranger/

“Legislators Ought to Keep Hands Off States Tough Teen Driving Laws.” http//www.onlineathens.com/18/01068.oedit.html.


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Tiger Woods "Golf's Next Superstar"

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Golf, a sport that has hid in the shadows of its companions like football, basketball, and baseball for years on end. That is at least until now! A young man by the name of Tiger Woods has taken over a sport that had seemed to be on a downward fall of late. The magnificent role that he plays in this particular sport raises the question, “Is Tiger Woods golf’s next Superstar?” Personally I would have to say, yes! Tiger Woods is an excellent role model as well as a professional golfer, because of the fact that his professional appearance, practice habits, and his unbelievable talent level have molded him into an individual that is profitable, but at the same time, looked up to as well as feared.

As far as appearance goes, Tiger Woods is a perfect match for Professional Golf. To be effective in the golfing world you have to have a very professional look as well as attitude, with a little sarcasm allowed here and there. Mr. Woods could not fit those guidelines any better than he already has. He is able to maintain that business look on the course and that friendly, yet classy look off. Mr. Woods is also eye catching because of the fact that he is African American and good looking all in one. Before he came along, golf was mostly a sport that was played and dominated by white people. Mr. Woods has clearly leaped that hurdle without falling down and has paved the way for others to do the same. His appearance also plays a major role in his golf game. To be honest with you, Tiger intimidates most of his opponents. If asked, they will tell you that just knowing he is present at a tournament is intimidating enough, much less having to play with him in the same group.

Obviously he’s got the look, but is he, and will he, be a profitable figure in the golfing world? The answer again is yes! If you look in the dictionary under the word profitable, you will see a picture of his face. That’s how important and profitable to the game of golf he is. Tiger alone being present at a golf tournament can change TV ratings and make them skyrocket far past any tournament that he is not entered in. That alone should tell you how important Mr.Woods is to the game of golf as well as its financial needs. On top of that, there are all of the sponsors who would love to have him indorsing there products. This also brings money into the PGA tour.

Tiger being the athlete he is, and then adding that image he carries with him at all times to that, makes him the perfect ingredient for a good role model. The strange thing about Tiger though is that anyone could claim him as their role model, no matter what their age, race, or sex is. But why would anybody choose Mr. Woods as their role model? Well firstly, because of the fact that he has overcome many challenges that have encountered him so far in his career. Secondly, through everything, he has taken full advantage of his individual talent and has maintained a professional image while doing so. So for what crazy reason would you not want Mr. Woods to be your role model?

I don’t have to go out on a limb to say that Tiger Woods is the most talented individual to ever master the game that we call golf. The scary part is that he is still learning. He’s got the whole package, from his individual physical talent to his mental toughness, on the course as well as off. Overall, he’s got all the talent in the world but it wouldn’t amount to anything if he didn’t care to practice on it. Tiger has probably the most demanding practice habits of anyone in the sport. By doing so, he expands his talent level more and more every practice. So, in the long run we really do not know how talented he is, all we can do is watch in amazement as his talent level continues to rise day by day.

Mr. Woods has already had an extraordinary effect on the game of golf, spanning from on the course, to off the course as well. On the course, Tiger has brought with him a whole new kind of atmosphere that is unlike any other. This atmosphere that seems to surround him is filled with an enormous amount of positive energy and the burning desire that he has to be the best at what he does. These things are prevalent on the golf course in many different ways, whether it be with a pump of his fist after he sinks a putt, or just a simple tip of his hat in appreciation for the support of his fans. These are ways that he has effected the game on the course, but the off the course effects that he has had on the game overrules all the others. One of the first things Mr. Woods did once he turned professional was start his own charity called “The Tiger Woods Foundation”. The main goal of his charity is to inspire young children with and without disabilities to learn to play the game of golf. The foundation raises money to build new facilities so children that want to play the game can learn how and have a place to do so.

Overall, I believe that Tiger Woods is the most admirable golfer up till this date. He has all the utensils in place to be able to mold himself into an individual that not only is known for what he does on the course, but what is done off as well. There is no doubt in my mind that Tiger Woods will continue to inspire and to teach others what has been taught to him. He is the type of individual that is needed and will continue to be needed in the public’s eye. Furthermore, I can now say that without a doubt, Tiger Woods is “Golf’s Next Superstar”.





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Sunday, June 26, 2011

Scarlet Letter - Why is Dimmesdale unwilling to take responsibility for his crime?

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In the novel 'The Scarlet Letter' by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale commits adultery with Hester Prynne. The townspeople find out about Hester, but she doesn’t tell anyone that Dimmesdale was involved. Since the townspeople knew Hester committed adultery she had to wear a scarlet “A” on her chest and went through public humiliation. The townspeople didn’t even suspect Dimmesdale of committing any kind of sin. To the townspeople Reverend Dimmesdale is the holiest and most perfect person in the town. I believe that Dimmesdale was unwilling to take responsibility for his crime because he was looked at as the perfect person so if anybody found out it would ruin his reputation, and he would be humiliated just like Hester was.

As a reverend and role model to the community in which he lived and served Dimmesdale didn’t take responsibility for his action because he didn’t want to loose his reputation as the holiest person in his town. For example, Dimmesdale had an opportunity to confess his crime to everyone, when Hester was on the scaffold being questioned by the governor and Reverend Dimmesdale. I believe when Dimmesdale was questioning Hester he didn’t want her to mention his name or else he would loose the trust of his people. Instead of confessing and being punished by the townspeople he inflicts his own punishment, which eventually led to the guilt driving him crazy. The punishments Dimmesdale puts himself through were far worse then what the townspeople would have done. Though, Dimmesdale believed that the punishments he puts himself through were better then the town knowing that he committed a crime. Furthermore, right before Dimmesdale died he got on the scaffold to try to confess his sin, but the townspeople didn’t understand exactly what he was doing and thought he just went crazy. This shows that even when Dimmesdale tried to confess, the townspeople didn’t believe him because of what a great person the townspeople believed he was.

To sum it up, I believe that Dimmesdale was unwilling to take responsibility for his action because he valued his great reputation more then being truthful. He had many opportunities to confess and come clean for what he did. When he did try to confess in front of everybody they didn’t understand what exactly he was doing.




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Saturday, June 25, 2011

Teen Pregnancy

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I’m quite sure most of us came back to school in August thinking, “Dang! Some people had a very interesting summer.” I don’t know how it was for you guys, but every time I turned around I saw a new face, a new expecting mother. This article is not written to offend or criticize anyone, but it is meant to inform students of the risks and responsibilities of teen pregnancy.

Every year, nearly one million teen girls get pregnant. At first I thought that girls just “slipped up”, but after asking for the opinions of several students and staff members, I have learned that most teen pregnancies are planned. According to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, almost 60% of teen pregnancies are intended. Of that percentage, more than half of teen mothers cite emotional void as the reason they became pregnant. P.E. Instructor Sherry Jackson said, “Pregnancy at Thornridge High School is a competition to fill a void. Some girls are not receiving the love and attention they require and are therefore turning to pregnancy as a solution.”

Senior Jennifer Stazzone said, “In some situations, girls have kids because they want that feeling of being loved or they want someone to love. This happens because they may not get that kind of attention from their parents, and they feel like it’s them against the world. Girls also get pregnant to keep the guy they’re with.” Of the remaining teen mothers whose pregnancies are intended, 40% cite a desire to hold on to the baby’s father as the reason they got pregnant.

Fact #1 Sex won’t make him yours, and a baby won’t make him stay.

Not only does getting pregnant result in having a child, but it could result in medical problems including, but not limited to, poor weight gain, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, sexual transmitted diseases, and even death. It has been proven that teens experience a maternal death rate 1.5 times greater than that of mothers aged 20-24. Also, adolescent mothers tend to be at greater risk for obesity and hypertension than women who were not teenagers when they had their first child.

Furthermore, children born to teen mothers suffer from higher rates of low birth weight ands related health problems. Low birth rate raises the probabilities of infant death, blindness, deafness, chronic respiratory problems, mental retardation, mental illness, and cerebral palsy. In addition, low birth weight doubles the chances that a child will later be diagnosed as having dyslexia, hyperactivity, or other mental disabilities. Let’s do ourselves and our children a favor let’s wait. As teens and possibly future parents, we should think of the dangers we could put our children’s lives in if we decide to bring them into the world now.

Moreover, future prospects for teenagers decline significantly if they have a baby. Teen mothers are less likely to complete school and more likely to be single parents. Less than one-third of teens that begin their families before the age of 18 earn a high school diploma. As a result almost one-half of all teenage mothers and over three-fourths of unmarried teen mothers began receiving welfare within five years of the birth of their first child. Senior Ashley Lasenby feels that students should consider their futures before they decide to have unprotected or even protected sex with someone who isn’t guaranteed to be with them.


Fact # 2  There are a lot of good reasons to say “no, not yet.” Protecting your future is one of them.

40% of teen pregnancies are unintended and half of those end in abortion. As a teen, I am curious as to how we could subject ourselves to such situations. Some people think that it is due to the miseducation or lack of sex education we receive. I asked several students and teachers what we could do as a school to try to curb the increase in teen pregnancy. Sophomores Kermit and Chandler Collins said, “Teen pregnancy is a serious issue that is taken too lightly by teens. It needs to be addressed.” Other students suggested that we bring back “Jammin’ for Achievement,” the peer mentor program that ended in 2000, to provide guidance and direction to students.

“I think students need to hear about the risks of sex more than once. To hear it from other students who have been there and done that may be more effective,” said Bill Stockdale, math instructor. Programs like Demoiselle Femme are also helpful. Obviously that is not enough. Some staff members believe that the new advisory program may help because it will allow teachers to reach out to students.

When asked what we, as students, could do about the situation at hand there were different responses. Sophomores A.J. Burse and Jarrett Drake said, “Guys should practice abstinence, but if they don’t, then they should practice safe sex.” As we all should know, abstaining from sex is the only guarantee that we will not become parents at early ages. Some people think that it is not cool to be a virgin or to be celibate, but those people are jeopardizing their lives by putting themselves at the risk of catching AIDS and/or other STD’s and becoming teen parents. The truth is that less than half of all high school students have had sex.

“If you don’t feel that you’re mature enough to raise a child, then don’t have sex,” advised Jackie Thomas.


Fact # 3 Just because you think “everyone is doing it” doesn’t mean they are. Some are, some aren’t, and some are lying.”

Don’t think that only girls have to worry about parenthood. It takes two to make a baby, and guys, child support is a mother. Not ready to be someone’s father? It’s simple use protection every time or don’t have sex at all. Seniors D.A. Allen’s, Dion Coopwood’s, and Wavell Norman’s advice to guys “If you’re going to engage in sexual activity, be responsible and wear protection. Use latex condoms and not lambskin because lambskin does not prevent pregnancy or the transmission of STD’s.” When used properly, condoms coated with the spermicide nonoxynol- are 7% effective against pregnancy. Other birth control methods include, but are not limited to, the birth control pill, intrauterine device (IUD), Norplant (surgical implants), and Depo-Provera (a shot). If you think birth control “ruins the mood”, consider what a pregnancy test will do to it.


Fact #4 Thinking “it won’t happen to me” is stupid; if you don’t protect yourself, it probably will. Sex is serious. Make a plan.

Not only did I interview random teens, but I also interviewed teen parents. When asked what she thinks about teen pregnancy, senior mom Akilah Gross said, “It’s stupid. Being a teen mother is hard. I made a mistake and if I had it to do over, I would be wise about my decision to have sex.”

“If you don’t have the help that you need, then you’re in a world of trouble. I have my mom, my dad, my boyfriend, and the rest of my family helping me. Do whatever you can to avoid pregnancy. My best advice is to abstain from sex, but if you absolutely can’t, use protection, get on the pill, or do something,” advised Dominique Holcomb, a new mother.

Senior Fallon Gartley said, “The hardest part about being a teen mother is going to school and being there for my child at the same time. I advise teenagers to wait and make better decisions. You don’t want to be disappointed in yourself like I was.”

Expecting father Willie Gordon, junior, said, “Wait until you know what you’re doing. Sex is not worth it. Having a baby will be a big change in my life because I have to accept a whole lot of responsibilities.”

To all teen parents Hang in there! The odds are against you, but we have faith in you. As Thornridge students, we know that you have the potential to succeed. Parents like Akilah Gross and Sparkle Robinson are living proof of that. Both are graduating this year; Sparkle is going to Southern Illinois University; and Akilah is going to St. Xavier University in Chicago.

Sparkle’s advice to teen parents “Don’t listen to what other people say. They will try to bring you down, but don’t let them. Never give up and always stay on task. Don’t be a statistic. Prove everyone wrong by doing what you have to do and working ten times harder.”

People, the message is this You’re in charge of your own life. Whether or not you decide to have sex, remember to always use protection. Teen pregnancy is a serious issue that can affect our lives when we least expect it to. Plan your future wisely and be safe.




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Beowulf's Heros Shifted to Today's Heros

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Today’s heros shifted from courageous warriors who risked their life in battle, to ordinary people achieving a goal or helping someone out. In Websters Dictionary, a hero is defined as a person noted for courageous acts or nobility of purpose, especially if this individual has risked or sacrificed his life. It can also be used in reference to a mythological or legendary figure, often of divine ancestry, who is favored by the gods, endowed with great courage and strength, and celebrated for his bold efforts. However, the definition of a hero has seemed to change since early English literature.

A hero is a person that fits his society’s view of someone to be praised. The definition of a hero is dependent on that society’s beliefs and laws. Heroes have had changing roles since people have written stories, and all have been the personification of each society, each civilization’s ideals. Ideal heroes are described differently throughout periods of history.

In early English literature the hero performs outrageous and sometimes superhuman deeds. The hero is usually a person of high social status and who usually has great historical or legendary importance. Beowulf is a prime example of this type of hero. He volunteers to fight Grendel and when Grendel’s mother wants revenge, Beowulf goes to the lake and takes on the challenge. He shows the great qualities of strength and power when, after fifty years, he fights the dragon who has become a threat to his society. He always battles his enemies with pride. When Beowulf and Wiglaf fight the dragon everyone else becomes cowardly and runs off to the forest to hide. Here it is shown that Beowulf and Wiglaf are courageous, and are always ready and willing to help. The following quote shows how courageous Beowulf is

I count myself weaker in war or grapple of battle than Grendel

himself. Therefore I scorn to slay him with sword, Deal deadly

Wound, as I well might do-nothing he knows of a noble fighting,

Of thrusting and hewing and hacking of shield (L 507-51)

That quote shows that Beowulf understands that he has a fate. If he was intended to win the battle then he would, so he might as well do it without the use of weapons or shields.

In Chaucer’s Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer described a deserving man. He is a chivalrous knight who prided himself on his own personal truth, honor, freedom, and courtesy. Chaucer’s view of a hero is one who is without fault, truly the epitome of goodness.

In the time period we live in now a hero is the personal point of view that a person has. Every person in the world has a different definition of a hero. Throughout English Literature, people have worshiped Heroes. Heroes are still in a way worshiped in modern day. The views of what a hero is have changed since then though.

A hero by modern day standards is a person who is looked upon as a role model. A hero can be a sports star to a working father. It just depends on a person’s view of what a hero is. In early English Literature, a hero was a warrior or king, by today’s standards it can be a firefighter.

In comparison of a modern day hero and a hero from early English Literature, you can compare Robin Hood to Michael Jordan. In the story of Robin Hood, Robin Hood fights many battles compared to Michael Jordan who doesn’t fight in battles at all. Another characteristic of an early English Literature hero was to boast about his feats. In the story of Beowulf, Beowulf makes sure of people knowing his strength and the following quote proves it. Beowulf on page 1, And I am stronger than anyone in the world. A hero by modern day standards, in contrast, should be a very modest person and should feel that they never have any reason to boast about anything.

Another characteristic of a hero from English Literature was to be a descendent from Royalty. A quote on page 1 in Beowulf shows his relation to royalty, Higlac is my cousin and my King. In contrast to today’s hero’s, a person can be a hero without being a descendent. For example Michael Jordan’s position in basketball had nothing to do with his family. He grew up in a bad neighborhood.

The characteristics of Anglo-Saxon and early English literature heroes were very different from those of a modern day hero. The first of them is that the Public eye likes the hero to be humble and have good sportsmanship. In comparison of the two time periods, Michael Jordan never went around taunting his opponents or talking about how good he was. But on the other hand Beowulf talked very highly of himself. The public would not have responded well to that.

Another characteristic of a modern day hero is his appearance. Michael was a clean looking person. He did TV commercials and made his own products. Beowulf was described as he didn’t have a good personal appearance. The third characteristic is to be a role model to the kids. During Michael Jordan’s playing time, many children wanted to be like him, but if you were to bring Beowulf into being a role model for kids, he would be described as a murderer. The time period between these two heroes are hundreds of years. They lived in two very different cultures but they were both portrayed as heroes in their own era.



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Friday, June 24, 2011

The Puritan Doctrines

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The Puritan Doctrines

It is always amazing to realize just how many people have a negative image of John Calvin. It seems that whenever his name is mentioned, people suddenly look slightly offended and ready to get into a fierce theological debate. Perhaps this apprehension of Calvin and his doctrines has something to do with Puritan dogma; however, it has come to this reader’s attention that many of the Puritan ideals are in direct contrast with Calvin’s teachings. Three major differences between Puritan and Calvin’s theological theories are the importance of the testaments, the lifestyles of the elect, and what should be included in a formal education.

Before getting into Calvin’s many theories, it is necessary to impart some information on the Calvinistic background. John Calvin was born in northern France in 1509. Shy and unsociable, he went to Paris where he received a humanist education, earning a masters degree in art and a doctorate in civil law. Instead of pursuing a career in law, he decided to devote his time and talents to repairing “Christ’s church”, which he deemed as being “neither One nor Holy nor Catholic nor fit to express the communion of Saints”. Exiled from Great Britain, he spent three years in Geneva where he eventually started an academy teaching Reformation principles. He remained active in the Reformation until his death on May 7, 1564. Calvin’s principles and teachings eventually gave birth to Puritanism, Presbyterianism, Calvinism in Holland, and the French Huguenots, as well as influencing Episcopalian doctrines.

Certainly with so many different forms of faith springing from one man’s teachings, there are bound to be theological differences between the denominations and Calvin himself. One such contrasting view between Calvin and the Puritans is a matter of deciding which Biblical testament is the more important. Calvin’s writings rely mostly on the New Testament. This dependence is made obvious by the fact that he wrote his New Testament commentaries first, as well as including almost twice as many references to it in comparison to the Old Testament in his book entitled Institutes. Even when writing about the Old Testament, Calvin uses it as a type of foreshadowing for the New Testament. He was quoted as saying that he considered the entire Bible as being a “testimony to Christ’. As a testimony to Christ, the Old Testament’s chief purpose is to drive home the points of the New Testament. Calvin’s chief reliance on the New Testament is a clear indication that he believes its message to be more important than that of the Old Testament.

Conversely, Puritanical writing focuses more on the Old Testament, particularly Levitical law. One instance of Levitical law is when William Bradford says the following concerning a case of bestiality at Plymouth Plantation “For first the mare and then the cow and the rest of the lesser cattle were killed before his face, according to the law, Leviticus xx.15, and then he himself was executed”. Although the Puritans have need of all their livestock, as well as all of the colonists, they do not hesitate in putting Thomas Granger to death “according to the law.” There is no mention made of the colonists even considering forgiveness or imprisonment for this heinous act; instead they go immediately to Leviticus to deal with the problem. Thus, they ignore the teachings of the New Testament in order to better focus on the Old Testament. To them, the laws and customs of Old Testament are in many ways more important than the love and forgiveness taught in the New Testament.

Following closely on their theories concerning the different testaments comes Calvin’s and the Puritan’s disparity concerning the lives of the elect. Calvin believed that, “we see daily the state of the faithful is more miserable than the state of the despisers of God”. This remark is intended to make one understand that a person’s earthly life is not a reflection on his or her state of redemption; in fact, he believes that the “faithful” are often “more miserable” than the unbelievers. Calvin goes on to say that it is the “error of the Sadducees” (McNeill 0) to believe that God’s favor is reflected in one’s material possessions. In mentioning the “Sadducees,” Calvin compares those who disagree with him to the very people that had Jesus arrested. Such a flaw in theology leaves one to inquire whether such dissenters can actually be called Christians.

The Puritans, however, believed that a person’s misfortunes are a form of God’s judgment and condemnation. John Winthrop, for instance, used Anne Hutchinson as an example of what happens to women who forget their place in Puritan society. Because she had gone against Puritan theology, she “was delivered of a monstrous birth”. Already disliked for her ideals, Mrs. Hutchinson’s “monstrous birth” enforces the Puritans’ belief that God will condemn her for her actions. Certainly the Almighty would not cause her to give birth to a malformed fetus if her beliefs did not affront Him. Thus, the Puritans believed that she was made to suffer because she had angered the Creator. Their belief in a vengeful God can be directly related to their dependence on the Old Testament. As mentioned earlier, Calvin disagreed with this belief of the “Sadducees” and would, therefore, see the Puritans as making a serious doctrinal error.

Finally, Calvin’s view on education and wisdom was vastly different from Puritan beliefs. Contrary to popular belief, John Calvin did not consider non-Biblical works to be trivial. Drawing on his humanist training, Calvin considered the works of church fathers, philosophers, and other writers to be instrumental in the edification of young minds; he used every author as a potential teacher. Students at the Geneva Academy were expected to read works by Virgil, Homer, Cicero, Plato, and Aristotle, and various other influential nonChristian authors. In response to others’ rejection on nonChristian works Calvin says, “‘If we regard the sole Spirit of God as the sole fountain of truth, we shall neither reject the truth itself nor despise it wherever it shall appear, unless we wish to dishonor the Spirit of God’”. According to his beliefs to “reject” any form of truth is to reject the very essence of God. Thus, it goes against Christianity to ignore the great pagan philosophers and poets. Calvin’s influence in this are can be attested to when one considers that Thomas Bodley, the founder of the University of Oxford’s prestigious library, received his education at the Geneva Academy. Let Calvin’s critics argue as they will; he did not discount the Classics.

Conversely, Puritanical society in America found nonBiblical literature to be worthless drivel. In describing Puritan views on a multicultural education, Froud (a famous historian from Oxford University) said, ‘in this quarrel, the Calvinists, Bible in hand appealed to the God of battles. They grew harsher, fiercer, -if you please, more fanatical’. The Puritans, victims of religious and educational persecution, have fled Europe to establish their own “fanatical” persecution in the New World. They totally discounted the wisdom passed down from ancient cultures like the Greeks and Romans. Even Anne Bradstreet, possibly the most progressive Puritan poet of her time says, “But this weak knot they will full soon untie. / The Greeks did nought, but play the fools and lie”. The very Puritan who makes the most allusions to Classical studies still deems it necessary to call the Greeks “fools.” Puritans looked down on the polytheistic Greeks and found no reason to study their many writings, which they deemed to be “lies.” No school wishes to teach untruths, so it is only logical that the Puritans refused to study what they thought of as folly. Therefore, they refused to pay any heed to the Classics.

Thus it was that Calvin and the Puritans disagreed on several important theological and societal points of order. Their outrageously different opinions in matters of scriptural importance, societal esteem, and educational policies lead one to wonder what it was exactly that they agreed upon. And yet, when one hears the name John Calvin, he or she automatically thinks of dour faced men in dark clothes, eking out a living with subsistence farming. Perhaps people should start trying to read his doctrines for themselves before they begin to judge him based on a long-dead people.


Works Cited

Boettner, Loraine. The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination. 6th Ed. Michigan Wm. B.

Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Bradford, William. “from Of Plymouth Plantation.” The Norton Anthology of American

Literature. Ed. Nina Baym, et. al. 6th Ed. Vol. A. New York W. W. Norton and Company.

Bradstreet, Anne. “The Prologue.” The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed.

Nina Baym, et. al. 6th Ed. Vol. A. New York W. W. Norton and Company.

George, Timothy. “Introduction.” John Calvin and the Church. Ed. Timothy George.

Louisville Westminster / John Knox Press.

McNeill, J.T. “John Calvin Doctor Ecclesiae.” The Heritage of John Calvin. Ed. John

H. Bratt. Grand Rapids William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Raynal, Charles E. III. “The Place of the Academy in Calvin’s Polity.” John Calvin and the Church. Ed. Timothy George. Louisville Westminster / John Knox Press.

Winthrop, John. “from The Journal of John Winthrop.” The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym, et. al. 6th Ed. Vol. A. New York W. W. Norton and Company.



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International Logistics

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Logistics is the designing and managing of a system in order to control the flow of material throughout a corporation. This is a very important part of an international company because of geographical barriers. Logistics of an international company includes movement of raw materials, coordinating flows into and out of different countries, choices of transportation, cost of the transportation, packaging the product for shipment, storing the product, and managing the entire process.

The concept of logistics is fairly new in the business world. The theoretical development was not used until 1966. Since then, many business practices have evolved and logistics currently costs between 10 and 5 percent of the total cost of an international purchase. There are two main phases that are important in the movement of materials material management and physical distribution;

- Materials management is the timely movement of raw materials, parts, and supplies.

- The physical distribution is the movement of the firms finished products to the customers.

Both phases involve every stage of the process including storage. The ultimate goal of logistics is to coordinate all efforts of the company to maintain a cost effective flow of goods.


There are four logistics concepts such as:

- the systems concept

- the total cost concept

- the after-tax concept

- the trade-off concept


The systems concept is based on all functions of a organization working together in order to maximize benefits. This concept sometimes requires certain components of the organization to operate suboptimally in order to achieve maximum goals of the system.

The total cost concept is based on the systems concept, however goal achievement is measured in terms of cost.

A variation of the total cost concept is the after-tax concept. This goal of this concept is after-tax profit. This concept is becoming very popular because of the many different national tax policies.

The trade-off concept links the system together in a way that is very efficient, but can have trade-offs that might be inefficient. The advantages of such high efficiency must be weighed against the risk involved.

One of the largest obstacles of international logistics is geography. The distance and manner materials must be shipped is the most important step in international logistics. Transportation infrastructures vary greatly throughout the world. International companies must consider all options before starting any operation in another country. Perhaps a country could have easy access by ship, but no way to transport the goods once on the ground. All available routes into and out of the country must be determined in order to judge the feasibility of the operation. Ground shipments are excellent for neighboring countries such as the U.S. and Mexico.

Normally, shipping across ground borders is fairly uneventful and is usually the best method if time and distance allow it. Ocean shipments are divided by three types of service liner, bulk, and tramp. Liner service is regularly scheduled passages on assigned and established routes. This ship routes are similar to taking a plane somewhere. This service is used more for one-time or irregular shipments. Bulk service is contractual for a prolonged period of time. This service is for those needing to ship large quantities on a fairly regular basis. Tramp service is for irregular routes and scheduled as needed. This service would be to destinations liner service normally does not operate, and for large quantities. The type of ocean service you use also depends on where the material must go. Certain types of ships can only go to certain places, and certain ships can only carry a certain type of freight. All alternatives must be fully researched before ocean service can be considered as a valid option. The biggest advantage of ocean shipping is cost. Typically, ocean service is the least costly option, however is also has the slowest travel time. Accidents are infrequent, however if one would happen, large quantities of material are lost all at once. Certain operations could not sustain long periods of down- from essaybank.co.uk time caused by lost goods, which could prove devastating. Additionally, not all countries have adequate docking facilities and material may have to be delivered in another manner. Sometimes, the material can be ocean shipped to a neighboring country, and then trucked across land. Air freight is the quickest method for shipping goods. It also is the most costly. While the airfreight industry has had tremendous growth over the years, it still makes up less than 1 percent of all international freight. Typically, airfreight is used for high value items, and those required to have a short transit time. Perishable goods for instance, practically requires air shipment. Another advantage to air freight is the abundance of facilities throughout the world that are accessible by air.

Transit time is another important aspect of international logistics, and is closely related to the manner in which the material is shipped. Because the ocean freight takes longer, large quantities are shipped. This requires storage of inventory in both countries. By using air freight, the smaller quantities and more periodic shipments can reduce storage costs. Air freight is also more predictable than ocean shipments. Where a ship may be a few days late, the air freight is usually only a few hours late. Predictability is important for many types of shipments, and when it is required, air freight is the mode of choice.

Packaging for international shipments must also be researched. Many times, a single shipment may be trucked, air freighted, and shipped. Packaging for three different types of shipping can be tricky. The most common type of international shipping is in containers. These containers can ride on a truck and then be placed on a ship. Beyond general packaging, climate changes must also be taken into consideration. Care must be taken that the freight is not susceptible to extreme temperatures or humidity. When air freight is being used, the weight of the packaging must be considered for maximum benefit. Extremely heavy packaging can add thousands of dollars to an air freight bill.

Logistics of a storage facility is also very important. How many locations and where they are located must be closely researched in order to yield the most benefit. Sometimes, a location can be chosen based on monetary benefit in addition to logistical benefit. Certain enterprise zones can greatly increase after-tax profits. These types of areas must be researched and compared for cost/benefit.

The final part of logistics is how to tie this system together. All of these different options and concepts must flow together and operate as efficiently as possible.

There are three basic forms of logistics management.

- Centralized logistics management provides that the logistics operations are headed by managers that also head other divisions of the company. This type of management helps avoid internal problems by having a central manager that ultimately decides how logistics and operations are coordinated.

- Decentralized logistics management is based on the fact that a company needs to have a division that helps control the local-adaptation needs. Dealing with different cultures requires input from the local branch. The managers that deal with the cultural differences on a daily basis normally know what works and what doesnt.

- Outsourcing is the final option for logistics management. When this happens, transportation firms concentrate on logistics, and the company can concentrate on its production. There are many cost savings using this type of program, however that lack of control can negatively effect many companies.

International logistics requires many different options and requirements to be met in order for a company to operate internationally. It's like a big puzzle that must be put together, in order for all the goals to be met. As described above, there are many options to consider, and sometimes what appears to be an option really isnt. It is not difficult to hit a road block, and you must start over with a new plan. Once the logistics plan is in place, you must constantly look for improvements in order to maximize profits and goals.


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Thursday, June 23, 2011

Grouping

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Grouping students by ability is a very important issue in Irish secondary schools. The identifying of some students as being more or less academic than others has a numbers of positive and negative affects for both the learner and the teacher. The principle forms of grouping used by second-level schools are referred to as streaming, banding, setting and mixed ability. The main reason I chose this essay is that I feel that the way pupils are grouped has a direct impact on the way we learn, and what we learn. Having being taught in a streamed school and at present teaching in a mixed ability school, I feel that I can draw on experiences from both methods of grouping pupils to explain my views on the issue.

In the first section of this of this essay I will introduce mixed ability grouping as a method to group students into various classes. Then I will focus on the benefits of this form of grouping focusing in particular on the benefits it has for the learner.

In the second section I will examine the curricular implications of mixed ability grouping with particular attention to a second year business studies class whom I teach.

Mixed ability grouping is one of the four principle forms of grouping used in second-level schools. In mixed ability grouping pupils are placed in heterogeneous groups i.e. pupils have diverse abilities and intelligence’s. According to Drudy and Lynch this may be achieved in two ways

(a)Indirectly by placing pupils in groups alphabetically or by some similar random method.

(b)Directly by first establishing the ability level of the students and then ensuring that each class has individuals representing the various levels of ability.

However it is important to note that as Kyriacou points out “all classes of pupils, even those where selection of attainment has been made, will involve a range of ability” in essence all classes are although maybe not to such extremes are mixed ability.

Streaming, banding and setting are quiet the opposite to mixed ability grouping, as these forms of grouping involve placing pupils in groups based on their ability or academic performance. These methods of grouping are essentially labelling students as either weak, bright or average. This labelling of a students ability may affect the individuals self-esteem. Kathleen Lynch states that

“ strong tracking (or grouping by ability) has a negative effect on the self-image of those in their lower streams”.

These negative feelings which students in lower streams place on themselves may effect their school-work. These feelings as being labelled slow or weak are generally not as obvious in mixed ability classrooms. In this setting the learner is avoided the this negativity, everyone is equal.

Not only do students in low streams develop a low self-image of themselves but evidence by Hannan, Smyth er al as cited by Lynch found that students in top streams had an average lower self-image than others. As already mentioned all classes are mixed ability, even streamed classes therefore students at the lower level of a high ability class may feel inferior to their peers. The feelings associated with the labelling of students would not benefit a pupil academically or emotionally.

Mixed ability grouping allows all students to have the same opportunities and resources. Lynch states

“ students who enter low streams or bands do not perform as well as others in examinations because they are sitting ordinary level papers which lowers their grade point average (GPA)”.

She also highlights that they may not be allowed to take up particular subjects like German or science and thus they are having their education curtailed. In a mixed ability classroom the pupils have the same experiences and whether or not they continue a particular subject is their own decision and not because it is not available to that particular class. This benefits the learner in that it is their own choice and they have control over what they undertake and cannot in later life look back and decide that they would have liked to have a particular opportunity.

Linked to this idea of opportunities is resources. When students are grouped by ability the higher ability classes tend to get allocated the best resources. This view is supported by Lynch’s study where 7 percent of the principal’s whom she interviewed admitted allocating whom they saw as superior teachers to the higher ability groups or streams. This allocation of resources immediately places the lower ability groups at a disadvantage. While it does not prevail in all schools their is evidence that it does exist. This evidence would suggest that mixed ability grouping would benefit lower ability students as they would be allocated the same resources as their peers, thus giving them the same opportunities.

Taking pupils and placing them in groups based on their ability may also affect friendships. Drudy and Lynch  states
“ children allocated to different streams discontinued friendships”.

They also highlight negative feelings which may exist between streams, and the development of negative stereotypes. These stereotypes may develop if students start to do what the school has done and label each other and thus develop negative attitudes towards their peers of different abilities. When learners are placed in mixed ability groups no differences are being highlighted so pupils view each other in the same way and may form friendships with individuals for other reasons without taking into account someone’s academic ability. Berk identifies that close friendships can improve an adolescent’s attitudes towards school. These relationships can promote good school adjustment, and if students are depreived of these relationships through ability grouping then it may have an adverse affect on their school.



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