Friday, October 28, 2011

Medical Issues

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Therapy Spurs Growth of Blood Vessels, Harvard Health Letter, p. 4-5, 18.

I. Research has been done to prove that therapy can be the start of growth of blood vessels and may be able to help those with are suffering from heart disease. Some experts believe that angiogenic growth factors may become a treatment for people whose arteries are too small.

II. German researchers performed an investigation and injected a protein called FGF-1 in the arteries of 0 men and women during bypass surgery. Three months later, the x-rays showed that small vessels sprouted out at the injection site. Three years later none of these patients had any side effects. These patients blood flow increased just a bit. They are concerned about the angionesis; if the injection were put into the heart the cells may become cancerous.

III. The research still continues to determine if the injection is safe for the heart. This field of study is moving quickly.

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Liebman, Bonnie, Preventing Prostate Cancer, Nutrition Action Health Letter, Jul/Aug 2001.

I. Prostate Cancer has been around for ages and researchers have been trying to find out why the mortality rate is so high in the U.S that it is in China and other countries.

II. The National Cancer Institute is doing a ten year trial on ,1000 men to determine if selenium and Vitamin E supplements will decrease the amount of prostate cancer throughout the U.S. We lose so many lives each year due to prostate cancer and the researchers want to do everything to find a cure to save some lives. Some of the studies say that Vitamin E may help protect from this disease. Three other studies that were performed found that alpha tocopherol lower the risk of this disease in smokers only.

III. No one really knows the cure or the answer to help protect Americans for prostate cancer. The research will continue for years until the mortality rate decrease tremendously.





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Anne Bradstreet Poetry

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In 1678, many of Anne Bradstreets poems were published for public view. Throughout her poems Bradstreet tends to use symbolism to express her innermost thoughts and feelings. One of these poems is In Reference to Her Children, June, 1675. Three of the most significant symbols in this poem are the representation of her family as a flock of birds, the dangers in the world, and the expression of her feelings toward her children.

Anne Bradstreets representation of her family as a flock of birds symbolizes two different things. First, it symbolizes her connection to God and her desire to please Him. She represents herself and her family as birds because they were also creations of God; however, they are not human, therefore they do not sin. The bird family also symbolizes freedom. As her young grow up and spread their wings, they leave the nest to fly on their own. This represents one of the facts of life; children grow up and leave their parents homes to find their own way to make it in the world.

As Bradstreets poem progresses she explains what each of her children have done or what they will do. Four have already left home, one will leave soon and the other three still dwell in the house with her. She then begins to express the dangers of the world around her in a birds point of view. For example, she is afraid that her young will fall in a fowlers snare, be caught in a net or by birdlime on twigs, or hurt by a hawk. In a human world a fowlers snare might be fallings into the hands of trickery, robbery, or any other type of crime. Caught by net or birdlime might represent being in the wrong place at the wrong time, and a hawk-inflicted injury might symbolize being wounded or killed by an Indian or criminal. She fears for the lives of her children and worries that harm will come to them. This also represents an aspect of the parent-child relationship. No matter how old children get, their parents still worry about the things they do and the choices they make.

Lastly, Bradstreet expresses her feelings to her children so that they might gain wisdom or become more aware of certain dangers. Bradstreet seems almost frantic in line 60-66 when she is speaking to her children about danger in the world. She is warning them to not be ignorant to perils, to be aware at all times in order to avoid accidents and to you safety have an eye, so happy may you live and die. She is hoping that her words will not be ignored so that her children will be spared of any wrongdoing or harm. Also, Bradstreet finishes her piece by speaking of her last flight into an unknown country. She is representing dying and going to heaven. She feels that her time on Earth is coming to an end and wants her children to know that she cared for them and loved them very much. In the closing lines of the poem, she says goodbye to her children and tell them that she is happy as long as they are. She is representing another aspect of the child-parent relationship here because the statement is a true representation of a mothers love.


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Anne Bradstreet uses symbolism to expree her thoughts and feelings to her children in such a way that might make them stop and listen. Her representation of the many aspects in the poem, In Reference to Her Children, June, 1675, are unique and not very subtle. I think she was trying to capture the attention of her children because she felt she had sent them out into the big, bad world unawares.


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Thursday, October 27, 2011

The Perfect Storm

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The Perfect Storm

'The Perfect Storm' by Sebastian Junger was a story telling about the crew of the Andrea Gail. He describes their life and their deaths at sea; he also describes the wicked storm that killed them. Sebastian Junger was a citizen of Gloucester Harbor and got his influence of writing his book there. Ethel Shatford, the mother of Bobby, still lives there and works at the Crows Nest. The Perfect Storm was one of the best novels that I have ever read.

The individuals that I read about were sword fisherman from Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts. They were friends and often hung out at the Crows Nest when they weren’t on the Andrea Gail. All of them had a passion for fishing and had a dream of catching the biggest swordfish. But, then one day after they had done their daily routine they ended up with nothing. They decided to sail to the Flemish Cap which was way of their route. There they caught all the fish they had dreamed of and had no idea what was happening in the outside world. While they were out in the Flemish Cap the worst storm of the century was developing into a watery giant capable of destroying anything. Unknowingly they went straight in the middle of the storm.

In the middle of the storm the Andrea Gail was trying to find an escape but had no luck. The waves were up to 60 feet high and the winds were an astonishing 10 miles per hour. But never the less, the crew stayed confident and had hope as they fought the waves and stayed alive for an extra or more hour. Sadly, in the end they did not overcome the storm and they all died either on the boat or drowned in the violent storm. They never recovered the Andrea Gail and never found the bodies of the sailors; Captain Billy Tyne, Bobby Shatford, Dale Murphy, Michael Moran, Alfred Pierre, and David Sullivan.

I decided to read about this subject because I was interested about the title. The perfect Storm just hit me as sounding like a good book. I was also told some great things about it and I’ve wanted to read it. The first four chapters did bore me a bit but not to much. As I got on with the book I couldn’t find the strength in me to pull it away from my eyes. I enjoyed the book and at the end felt sorry for the six men that died in the storm. My thoughts about the book are a lot different from other people because two of my friends read it and didn’t really enjoy it. They complained that it was boring and I told them their problem was that all they did was read it and they didn’t try to get into it. I think it would have been more exciting if they read it more enthusiastically.

After I read the book and was finally done with it my interest increased a lot. It made me think of how the earth can give birth to monsters that can shatter 0 to 50 brick walls like glass. When I was working I read about how Sebastian Junger made a foundation for those lost at sea during the storm. It also made me feel sorry for Christina Cotter and how the love of her life was killed in the storm (Bobby Shatford).

In the book I think that their major motivation was their families. In the storm I think that all they could have thought about was getting home to their loved ones and giving them the biggest hug of their life. If not that then I have no idea what their motivation could have been. If I were Bobby I would have done everything in my power to get home and give Chris the Biggest kiss. Even if I was Billy then I would have made the crew work harder until they couldn’t work just to see my little girls one last time. The only thing that I could think of is their love for their children, girlfriends, and wives.

These are some of the reasons why I think that 'The Perfect Storm' is one of the best novels that I’ve read. This book is like a magnet to your eyes and you won’t be able to put it down. I hope that this inspires you to read the book and share the feelings about the men lost at sea.


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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Learning Methodology

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Introduction.

Learning is defined as a deliberate, conscious attempt to master a language and it is usually related to second language. When we learn a second language, we learn it consciously, formally and in natural environment. The term of second language is refers to mean a language that is learned after the first language is established. The term second language may refers to our third, fourth or fifth language. Second language learning may be begun at any age, but the nature of learning will vary depends on the age of the learner.


I. Types of techniques in second language learning.

Learning a second language is very important because we can gain many benefits from it such as to get a better job, to gain more knowledge, to communicate and so on. A second language affects people¡¦s careers, theirs lives, their identities and future. Therefore, to successfully learn a second language, we must choose a suitable learning technique. The major techniques are known as The Grammar-Translation method, The Audiolingual method, The Direct Method, The Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community Language Learning, The Total Physical Response method, The Communicative Approach and so on. Before I go on further, here are some descriptions of some major techniques in learning a second language

a) The Grammar Translation method.

This method emphasizes the study of grammatical rules of the target language using translation exercises and the instruction is given in the native language of the learners. The aim of this method is for learners to develop an ability to read prominent literary texts and to write in the target language accurately. However, this method does not give emphasis to speaking and listening skills.

b) The Audiolingual method

According to Yule, this method become popular in the 1950s and it involved a systematic presentation of the structures of the second language, moving from simple to the more complex, often in the form of drills. Besides that, this method is known as aural-oral method because it emphasis on speaking and listening skills. This method was developed due to the lack of speaking skills of The Grammar Translation method and it based on the principles of habit formation of behaviorist psychology. This method relies on the repetition and memorization of dialogues. Grammar is not taught through direct instruction but through the repetition of language patterns.

c) The Direct method

According to Larsen-Freeman, the direct method has one very basic rule that is no translation is allowed. This method was developed as a reaction against the grammar. It main features are using the target language in class and the learner should be actively involved in using that language.

d) The Silent Way

This method requires active participation of learners and they do most of the talking and interaction among themselves. All four skills such as listening, speaking, writing and reading are taught from the beginning. Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned.

e) Suggestopedia

The learning environment is relaxed with low lighting and soft music playing in the background and learners choose a name and character in the target language and imagine being that person. Learners relax and listen while dialogues are presented accompanied by music and later they practice the dialogue.

f) Community Language Learning

This method is somehow like Counseling-Learning theory in learning language. The teachers help to overcome their learner's fear of language learning by helping them to feel secure. Learners choose what they want to learn they generated the learning syllabus.

g) The Total Physical method

This method is based on the belief that learning comprehension should be fully developed before any active oral participation from learner is expected.

h) The Communicative Approach

This technique focuses on functional language usage and the learner ability to express their own ideas, feeling and so on. The activities include open-ended questioning, problem solving and exchanges of personal information are utilized as the primary means of communication.

II. What are the best techniques in learning a second language?

Although there are many effective techniques in learning a second language, but not all techniques are workable. Therefore, choosing a suitable technique or combination of techniques is very important in order to successfully learning a second language. In my opinion, I think the best choice is to combine Partial Immersion program with Audiolingual method.

III. Description of partial immersion program and Audiolingual method

According to O'Grady, Dobrovolsky and Katamba, immersion program is a very popular bilingual education involves immersing a majority language learner in a minority language class. Over the last decade immersion program have become increasingly popular as a way of teaching children a second language, especially for Spanish in the United States and French in Canada. In this context, immersion means that learners are taught most of their subjects in the second language and school activities are conducted in that language.

There are three types of immersion program such as total immersion, partial immersion and two-way immersion. Total immersion require all the subject are taught in the target language while two-way immersion involves instruction in two non-native languages. Partial immersion involves instruction in the second language for half of the school day and in the native language for the other half day. The aim of partial immersion program is to develop learners¡¦ communicative and proficiency in the second language.

"The Audiolingual Method is also referred to as "The Army Method", because it was developed through a U.S. Army program called ASTP, standing for "Army Specialized Training Program". In this method, oral interaction was emphasized in pattern drills, and conversation practices" (http//www.abacom.com/~nathan/audio.htm 08/04/001). The principles of this method are such as new material is presented in dialogue form, structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills, there is a little or no grammatical explanation and vocabulary is strictly limited to pronunciation. Besides that, there is much use of visual aids, tapes and language labs. This method also uses very little of mother tongue and there is great effort to get learners to produce error free utterances.

IV. The advantages of the Partial Immersion Program.

According to O¡¦Grady, Dobrovolsky and Katamba, immersion program is a very popular bilingual education involves immersing a majority language learner in a minority language class. Over the last decade immersion program have become increasingly popular as a way of teaching children a second language, especially for Spanish in the United States and French in Canada. There are many advantages in following partial immersion program in learning second language. According to Eric Digest, partial immersion needs fewer special teachers because one teacher can serve two immersion classes for one half day each. Besides that, the learners feel secure because they are able to understand more clearly when the teacher translates or explain in their native language. This was due to my own experience in learning Japanese, I feel secure and able to understand more clearly when my teacher provides translation in English. By using this method, the learners are not forced to speak in the second language and initially they can speak in their first language if they wish. As a result the learners will not easily feel nervous when answering the teacher questions because they are allow to answer in their first language if they are unable to answer it in the second language. Partial immersion is also suitable for all types of learners especially for adults because they have passed the critical period and so it is difficult for them to learn a second language. Therefore, the adults need extra explanation and time to learn a second language. I personally have that experience too because I feel it difficult to learn another language and I need more time to understand and memorize the Japanese vocabulary and grammar. Unlike the children, their acquisition of second language is natural and faster and therefore they are suitable for both total and partial immersion.

V. The advantages of Audiolingual method

The advantages of Audiolingual method are learners can learn by using visual aids and language labs. Tape material can also be used for learning comprehension work and about other activities such as dialogues, song and so on.

Besides that, the OHP is put in front the class and the teachers and learners can operates it without turning their back on the class. It also offers flexibility that comes from face-to-face interaction. Another advantages in using visual aids such as video is that the learners can watch the shows in second language and at the end the teacher can ask feedback from the learners and this may help to improve their skills in listening and speaking. In addition, the learners can film themselves as they act out the dialogues and later they can see and hear themselves speaking in that second language. By doing this, it can help the learners to get over the "nervousness barrier".

In addition, the advantage of Audiolingual is that it allows the learners to use language laboratory. The language laboratory is a modern learning tool and the learners can gain many benefits by using it. According to Haycraft (1811), a language laboratory is expensive to buy costly to run effectively. There are three types of language laboratory known as Listening Laboratory, Audio Active Laboratory (A.A.) and The Audio-Active-Comparative (A.A.C.). The advantage of Listening Laboratory is that each learner can work in their own speed because they has a tape recorder with a headset and they can listens to a tape and going back as often as they wish. This is the cheapest form of laboratory, it concentrates on the single skill of listening, and understanding which in the classroom is often underplayed.

The Audio Active Laboratory is function where there is a console and individual headset. A tape is played from the console, the learners listen, and when they speaks, they can hear their own voice through the headset. However, the learner cannot record their own voice and they have to go at the speed of the tape being played. The advantage is that the teacher can listen to the learner¡¦s voice and speak to them individually. By using this laboratory, the learners do have an idea of whether their answer was right or wrong and next time they can try to produce a better version. The effect is similar to a chorus drill where the learner can hear their own voice more clearly and the teacher can listen to them. Furthermore, this laboratory is cheaper and easier to maintain than the A.A.C.

The Audio-Active-Comperative is the most complex and expensive type of laboratory. It consists of a console that allows the teacher to listen and speak to learners in turn or alternatively to speaks to all of them together. In this laboratory, each learner is in a booth with separate tape recorder and earphones and they can control the tape recorder by themselves. The advantages of using this laboratory is that it allows the learners to work on their own, progress at their own speed and uses more of their time in speaking. It is also good for the shyer learner to express themselves more confidently in their booth than in front of the class.

According to Bowen, There are many advantages of using audio-visual method. Firstly, we use many different types of visual aids that other methods are rarely use. Secondly, by using visual aids it can encourage the learners to lift their eyes from their books, which makes it easier and more natural for one to speak to another. Besides that, visual aids allow the teacher to talk lesser by diminishing the importance of the verbal stimuli provided by the teacher voice and allow the learners to talk more. That means, this method requires active participation of the learners. In addition, the learners with a creative imagination will often find themselves learn a new language easily and enjoyable using visual aids. Visual aids can also make a communicative approach to language learning easier and more natural. It can also help to improve the learner¡¦s proficiency in the second language. Learning a second language with visual aids can help to attract the attention of the learners because it is more fun and interesting. Therefore, the learners will not easily get boring in learning a second language.

VI. The disadvantages of these techniques and ways to overcome.

Although there are many advantages of learning a second language by using partial immersion, however this technique or program still have some disadvantages. First, the learners failed to achieve native-like status if compares to total immersion. Secondly, the learners require more time in learning a second language and their result is poorer than those who are in total immersion program. Consequently, this technique is not hundred percent successful and so it need to combine with other method so that the learners can successfully learn a second language. I think the best method to combine with partial immersion is by using audiolingual method because this method can help the learners to achieve native-like status by improving their speaking and listening skills. As I have mention earlier, the audiolingual method allows the learners to use visual aids such as language laboratory and this can improve the learners speaking and listening skill because they can always practice in speaking and listening dialogues whenever they wish.

However, the audiolingual method also has it disadvantages such as it does not develop writing skills and grammar. Secondly, the use of mother tongue is restricted. Because of these weaknesses, the learners was unable to improve their writing and grammatical skills and some of the learners may be easily feel stress because they are not encourage to use their native language. This may cause the learners feel scared to attend the second language class because they feel unsecured and embarrassed if they were unable to speaks entirely in the second language. Consequently, they lost interest in learning the second language and their performance will decline.

As a way to overcome the disadvantages, the audiolingual method should be combine with partial immersion. The reasons is partial immersion allow the learners to use their first language if they wish. Therefore, the first language is not totally neglected while the second language of the learner is still developing. Besides that, by using partial immersion, the learners also have the opportunity to learn about other skills such as grammar, vocabulary and writing. Therefore, if the two techniques is combine, then the learners have the opportunity to learn all the skills such as speaking, listening, writing, grammar and so on. Furthermore, partial immersion is a very successful program though it still has some weaknesses such as lack of the use of visual aids, speaking, and listening. In this case, the Audiolingual method is function as a solution to help overcome the disadvantages of partial immersion. Therefore, both the partial immersion and audiolingual method are not considered as 100% best technique because each of this technique has its own disadvantages and so it is necessary to combine these two technique in learning a second language. By combining the two techniques, both of the techniques may help to overcome the disadvantages of each other.

VII. How does it work?

In my opinion, these techniques will workable if the government provide more funds for the construction of more language laboratories in school. Moreover, the government and the school sector should prepare more facilities such as visual aids and improve the learning environment so that the learners can enjoy themselves in learning. For example, the government provides more fund to improve the facilities of the school such as build more language laboratory, extra visual aids for teaching and learning.

Then the class should be conducted in two sessions such as the first session the learners are taught in bilingual while the second session is conducted in entirely second language. Every day the classes are conducted in two session and each session is about hours. The first session is conducted in bilingual while the second session is conducted in entirely second language. In between the two sessions, the learners should have an hour break before the second session is conducted. During the first session the teachers taught in bilingual and learner are allows to use their first language to ask or answer the questions. Both the sessions should be conducted in language laboratory. The first session is mostly about the teachers giving lectures and explain in bilingual and the learners are allow to ask questions if they do not understand. While in the second session the teacher taught entirely in second language and learner are not allowed to speak in their first language.

The activities during the second session is mostly about drill such as repetition drill, question and answer drill, and complete the dialog. For example, in the repetition drill, the learners are asked to repeat the teacher's model of dialog and the learners are requiring repeating as accurately and as quickly as possible. As for the question and answer drill, the learners are given the practice in answering questions and form questions to ask the others learners or the teacher. The next activity is complete the dialog. In this activity, the teacher speaks the dialog that has been taught and the learners are requiring answering or filling in the blank of the missing words.


Conclusion

As a conclusion, learning a second language is very important because we can gain many advantages from it such as to get a better job, to communicate with foreigners and so on. Every learner require a different type of learning technique and therefore sometimes a learner especially the adults, fails to successfully learn a second language if they choose a wrong technique. Therefore, to successfully learn a second language, the learners and the teachers should plan a best technique to learn or teach a second language. Until today, there are many different types of learning techniques but not all these techniques are perfect because each of them has its own disadvantages. Therefore, it is necessary to combine the advantages of two or more techniques to overcome their disadvantages. In my opinion, I think the best way is to combine partial immersion program and audiolingual method because the partial immersion was proved as a successful technique and the audiolingual method can help the learners to achieve native-like status. I personally feel that, these techniques are workable for me and I think it would be successful for other second language learners.


References

Bowen, B. M. Look Here! Visual Aids in Language Teaching London Macmillan Press


Eric Digest Foreign Language Immersion Programs. http//www.cal.org/ericcll/digest/met00001.html (10 April 2000)

Haycraft, J. An Introduction to English Language Teaching. Ed. Ke-4. Longman Group Ltd.

Larsen-Freeman, D. TECHNIQUES AND PRINCIPLES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING. Oxford University Press.

O'Grady, W. , Dobrovolsky, M. & Katamba, F. Contemporary Linguistics. Ed. Ke- London & New York Longman.

Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Teaching Methods and Correlation to Learning in the Language Classroom. http//ivc.uidaho.edu/f1brain/learning.htm

The Audiolingual Method. http//www.abacom.com/~nathan/audio.htm


Types of Immersion Education An Introduction

http//carla.acad.umn.edu/ACIEarticles/Feb18_ImmersTypes.html


What is a language learning technique?

http//www.sil.org/lingualinks/LANGUAGELEARNING/PrepareForLanguageLearning/WhatisALanguageLearningTechniq.htm

Yule, G.The study of language. Ed. Ke-. United Kingdom Cambridge University Press.




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The Impact of Colonialism

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1870 marked the year when significant changes that altered the region of Southeast Asia first began. The impact of colonialism played a important role in the development of the region, as the changes were implemented by the colonialists, with desires to exploit the bountiful resources of the region. To a large extent, the impact of colonial rule was almost entirely negative, affecting the natives of the region in a detrimental manner, economically, politically and socially as the whole structure and basis of the traditional Southeast Asian communities were altered to meet the demands of the colonial powers. Though there were positive effects that could be used to counter this stand, the negative impact of colonial rule was far more outstanding and its effects far-reaching.

The economic impact of colonial rule on the region of Southeast Asia had its harsh effects on the local communities. The impact economic imperialism caused many problems in the rural parts of Southeast Asia as the changes that were implemented severely undermined the previously self-reliant communities, making them susceptible to the fluctuations of the global economy.

The very first negative effect of economic imperialism would be the exploitation of the economies of the region of Southeast Asia where the needs of the native community was second to that of the colonial powers. For example, in the Preanger districts of West Java, the Dutch forced cultivation of coffee and the cutting of timber in teak forests as compulsory labour. This showed the over emphasis the colonial powers placed on colonies as producers of agricultural products. This exploitation of the colonies was also worsened by the fact that most colonies produced just the few cash crops in bulk, with little or no economic diversification. For example, in most of the Western Malay states, tin mining was the main economic occupation. In times such as the Great Depression, when prices of tin and rubber fell significantly, the colonies would suffer a period of economic ruin and devastation as the Southeast Asian countries depended on the export of only a few export. The people of the region were also exploited and neglected such as in the case of Indo-China, rice was still exported despite the fact that the Vietnamese had little food to eat.

Another serious economic problem that was an effect of colonial rule in Southeast Asia was the problem of land alienation. For example, in French Indo-China, following the sharp rise in demand for rice in the world market, the locals tried to produce crops for export by borrowing capital from money lenders. Peasants who were behind on their credit payment or farmers who were unable to make legal claims on the land they cleared resulted in the loss of their lands as the French tried to auction of large blocks of land to the Europeans while getting the Vietnamese to work on the land that by right was theirs. By 10,5 % of landowners owed 45% of the land while 1 out of 4 peasant households owed land. This meant that the local farmers and peasants had to pay high rental to those whom they owed. In French Indo-China, there were little or no reforms what so ever as the landlord class of the regime opposed them. This meant that many of the peasants became “poor people in a rich country” .


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Another example of negative impact of colonial rule in the economic sense would be that there was no development or support for any native industry in the region of Southeast Asia. For example, in the Philippines, cane sugar was an industry that could have been extremely well developed. However, in order to protect their own sugar processing industry, tariffs were set up to prevent Americans from investing and thus developing the sugar processing industry in the Philippines. This lack of development in the process of industrialisation resulted in the loss of employment opportunities for the natives. This could have been used to supplement their meagre incomes and improve the lives of the indigenous community. This method was negative for the natives as it held them back from developing any further.

Another aspect of negative impact of colonial rule was the existence of the Dual economy. The system of dual economy was such that two different economies existed side by side. One was Western style economy, the other, traditional economy of the natives. The existence of the dual economy resulted in the stagnation of the indigenous community who were left in a kind of backward time warp. In the case of Malaya, the Malay Land Reservation Act was passed so as to along the Malays to carry on with their traditional way of life. In the short term, this situation seemed ideal, as it appeared to be the best for both parties. But in the long run, the system of dual economy was disastrous for the indigenous community as they were not equipped with the necessary skills and resources to compete in the changing economic situation. This meant that the locals had lost control of their economic powers in their own countries to the colonial powers and immigrants.

Another negative economic effect of colonial rule was the inequality of taxation. This situation affected the natives of Southeast Asia unfavourably. The European community was not taxed in proportion to the share of economic activities in which they partook but rather, as in the case of Dutch East Indies, the Indonesians and Europeans paid similar amount of taxes as land which was owned by the natives was taxed rather than the volume of trade, which the colonial powers heavily engaged in. Thus, even though the Europeans made more money, the natives paid a similar tax, which was then used by the colonial powers to improve the welfare conditions .Thus the improvements that were made to the Southeast Asian countries were a result of the natives’ payment rather than a portion earned from the profits of the European community. These same improvements which were mostly paid for by the indigenous community was even reduced when the depression set in, thus showing that the impact of colonial rule was to a large extent, economically, negative.

Colonial rule also had a large role to play in the social aspect of the effects of colonialism. Colonialism and its social impact of the region of Southeast Asia have both positive and negative effects. Again, in this case, the social effects of colonial rule, to a large extent, did have negative effects such as the formation of plural societies. Plural societies are societies where or more racial groups exist but do not integrate, each holding onto their own distinct cultural values and language. As in the case of the Burma, the Indians were heavily concentrated in Rangoon. They were seen by the Burmese as competition. This resulted in the rise of racial tensions as they were seen as the most obvious expression of colonial rule and were resented especially when they started intermarrying with local women and because they appeared to gain access to more job opportunities easily. They were seen as interlopers and this was a negative impact under colonial rule because this feeling of resentment led to problems such as the racial riots of 10 in Burma.

Another negative effect colonial rule had on Southeast Asia was the widening of the social gap in society. This was brought about by a lack of access to western education. Most of the indigenous community of Southeast Asia had a vernacular education which like in the case of Cambodia was provided by traditional institutions with the sole aim of making reconciling them to their future occupation and lives as peasants. The children who were given a western education were mainly the children of Southeast Asian aristocracy and it was these same children who would obtain jobs in the civil service because of western style education being one of the main criteria of entry. This meant that the social gap between those who had a vernacular education and those who had a western education grew wider as those who had a vernacular education would be socially immobile and were still backwards as compared to those who had a western education. The widening of the social gap was an extremely negative legacy left behind by the colonial rulers as in the case of Malaya, many of the indigenous people were stagnant and unable to do much to improve their situation.

Also, the negative impact that social colonialism had through education was that the western educated natives were not given jobs and responsibilities that were equal to their qualification. The natives were confined to lower positions of the administration despite being more than suitable for the job. In Dutch East Indies, few Indonesians were given senior ranks in the administration. This would mean that when the time came that the people wanted internal self-government or independence, most of them would not have had the necessary experience to lead the country. The chief exception to this would be the Americans in the Philippines. The Americans encouraged the Filipinos to learn about democracy and gave all children opportunities to have a western style education so as to give each of them equal opportunity.

Politically, the impact of colonialism had far-reaching effects, most of which are also negative effects for the natives. An example of political negative impact would be the loss of power for the indigenous rulers. This can be seen from the unrest that occurred in Perak in 1874, which resulted in the appointment of a British Resident to advise the Sultan of Perak in all matters of administration except those regarding Malay customs and religion. The right to rule was now in the hands of the colonial powers, either through direct or indirect rule. Considering that most of the colonial rulers had little knowledge of the traditional systems which they replaced, it would make implementing of changes even harder to achieve. In order, to even retain their positions as monarchs of their ethnic empires, it was necessary for the traditional leaders to conform with what the colonial powers wanted. The power and positions of the indigenous political leadership was displaced almost ruthlessly by the colonial rulers.

Another example of the political impact that was negative would be the lack of representation by the indigenous community in the administration of the country. The loss of political power was in some countries masked by the façade of indirect rule, but in truth, all executive and legislative power was in the hands of the colonial rulers, not the indigenous population. There were some attempts made like the Superior Council of Indo-China where there was some form of indigenous participation, but was limited to 4 native members only. The French granted participation on higher levels of government for the natives slowly and reluctantly, but even still, the electorate had little power or use. Another example of some attempt of representation made was by the Dutch who started the Volksraad but again, ½ the membership was Dutch and ½ were elected, the rest were nominated by the Governor-General. Again, like the French, the Dutch appeared to be half-hearted about giving representative powers to the indigenous population.

To a large extent, the impact of colonial rule almost completely negative. The problems which the indigenous population faced were many and great. Within their own region, the Southeast Asian community was unable to change the situations. Yet, the colonial powers were able to effect positive things such as better health Sanitation and provide and improve standards of health care such as the control of outbreaks of malaria in British Malaya. Infrastructure for economic development such as railway lines were also developed such as the Luzon line that stretched across the plains of Manila to the ports so that goods could be exported.

Politically, the colonial powers were able to organise a system of administration that was impersonal, but was cost-effective. Yet, all these benefits that came along, still could not outweigh the negative impact that colonial rulers had on Southeast Asia and its community.

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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Magna Carta: Foundation of the Free World

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The rights of freedom, equality, and justice for all, which are held sacred, were not always guaranteed for all citizens. Many were deprived of life, liberty, and the right to own property. Others were denied public trials. The lower classes were looked upon as inferior. The Magna Carta also known as the Great Charter, was signed by King John of England in 1215. It was the document that changed the lives of millions of people around the world. The Magna Carta caused long-range, long lasting, and long-term effects on society.

The Magna Carta guaranteed nobles certain rights, limited the king’s power, and provided a cornerstone for further documents that support human rights and freedom for all. King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215. It was revised in 1216 and then later in 1217. The last version, written in 15, became law and was confirmed in Parliament. It stated the customary enactment and was enforced in the courts of law. It also confirmed existing privileges and liberties (Holt). The Magna Carta established the idea that nobles had certain rights and that the king had to respect the law. It consisted of over 60 clauses. Many of them declared human rights and over 0 were about the relations of the king and his subjects. The document guaranteed the liberties of small and large property- owners. It also broke the feudal compact and gave nobles the right to public trials (Bryant). The charter declared that the English church should be set free and that no free man should be outlawed, imprisoned, or exiled without a lawful judgment by his peers or by the law (Holt).


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The Magna Carta was also a charter of liberties. It certified reforms that would protect upper classes against absolute monarchs, and answered questions about ward ship, marriage, widows, and the payment of debts (Warren). Four original copies of the Great Charter have survived since the meeting at Runnymede. All other versions have been copied. The original versions were sent to a British museum, Lincolns Cathedral, and Salisbury. The difficult situations in England led to the signing of the Magna Carta. After World War I, the nation was drifting into war. Men disobeyed the kings law and the government was no longer recognized as a form of power (Bryant). After Henry IIs reign as king, his officials continued to function in his absence. When the next heir came into power, he used his royalty to make life intolerable for his subjects. He was quickly overthrown and England was left without a king. The barons began to take over England while the administrators in office searched for another heir to the throne. As son of Henry II, King John stood nearest to the throne. He was also the closest heir to the land by birth and by right (Daugherty). When King John, also known as Arthur King, became the king of England, his thoughts were first centered on Normandy and the French provinces that had once been his fathers. King Philip of France also wanted the French provinces, but with King John in power, there was little hope of these dominions being his . Before King John came into power, Henry II had created a dilemma. England was in need of financial aid and new administrators. It faced political difficulties and high taxes were given to the nobles and upper class. Also, the happiness and prosperity of all the people depended entirely on the supremacy of the king (Bryant). Now, faced with the problem of restoring England, King John was forced by the barons to sign a document which would unify Englands people and provide a strong foundation for the government. The Magna Carta changed the history of England and impacted other nations. It was a reflection of the continuous development of English law and administration. When the Englishmen left their homelands to establish colonies and markets in the New World, they brought with them their liberties, which were guaranteed in the great charter. The Magna Carta pointed the way to new and greater freedoms. It was the beginning of liberty, fraternity, democracy, justice, and equality in later centuries (Daugherty ).

The Magna Carta impacted America greatly. When American colonists began to build colonies and settle on the land, it was necessary for them to get charters, giving them the right to set up a form of government and occupy the land. The colonists based their charter on the only existing document known to guarantee right and liberties to all. This document was the Magna Carta. On July 4, 1776, the American colonists got together and wrote a new charter based on the ideas of the Magna Carta. It was called the Declaration of Independence . The Magna Carta contained certain fundamental principles of right and justice. The Declaration of Independence outlined similar laws that further explained the same principles. Like the Magna Carta, the Declaration of Independence controlled both the acts of Parliament and the kings power (Harbison).

Another document influenced by the Magna Carta was the Bill of Rights. When representatives of the United States gathered to draft a constitution, they turned to the legal system they knew and admired. The common laws and rights outlined in the Magna Carta, served as a basis for the Bill of Rights. Both documents were charters of rights and liberties (Brant). The American Bill of Rights states that No person..... shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, and that .....the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury. The Magna Carta states similar amendments relating to liberty and justice.

Other nations have adapted the ideas of the Magna Carta. On August 14, 1941, a document that gave the hope of humanity, peace, liberty, and justice was signed. It was called the Atlantic Charter (Daugherty). About four months later, four men representing Great Britain, U.S.S.R., China, and the United States signed a brief document based on the Magna Carta. This pact was known as the Declaration by the United Nations. It suggested the need for unity and peace throughout the world. The document was later signed by representatives from other nations. Eventually, 46 nations had signed it. Together, the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration by the United Nations formed the greatest union of power in the history of the world. It was known as the United Nations. The Magna Carta was the foundation of these two documents. It provided the basis for the United Nations and written amendments used in many other documents. This is a law which is above the King and which even he must not break. This is the great work of the Magna Carta. Nobles were given certain rights and the kings power was limited by the charter. It helped to influence further documents that supported human rights. The clearly defined rights stated in the charter proved to be a stepping stone for other nations. The United States, Great Britain, and the United Nations based their laws and important documents on the Magna Carta. This great charter was a turning point in history because it established new nations and provided a cornerstone for further documents.

Works Cited

Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights. New York The BOBBS-MERRILL Company, Inc.

Bryant, Sir Arthur. Makers of England. New York Doubleday and Company, Inc.

Daugherty, James. The Magna Carta. New York Random House, Inc.

Harbison, Winfred. The American Constitution. New York W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.

Holt, J.C. Magna Carta. New York Cambridge University Press.

Warren, W.C. King John. New York W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.



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Flight of Icarus

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The Icarus myth is a timeless legend that exceeds all bounds. Timeless to history, it tells us of a father and son, who was over ambitious, who attempt to escape from the imprisonment of King Minos. Daedalus, a famous Greek mechanic, angered King Minos and was imprisoned. He tried to escape numerous times but all attempts failed with the exception of his first, in which he was recaptured. He said The King does not govern the sky so we shall escape that way. Daedalus created wings for he and his son, then went about making plans to escape. As they flew above the sea, Icarus, excited by the feeling of the wind, flapped his wings harder and went higher than he was suppose to go. The sun beat down on Icarus and started melting the wax that attached the feathers to his wings. His joy kept him beating his wings however, oblivious to the fact of his wing wax melting. Eventually, all the wax melted and his feathers were gone. Icarus fell to the Aegean Sea, life-source depleted. His father, in search of him, found his wings in the sea. Distraught by this, he retrieved his son’s body from the sea, and took him to the island of Icaria, named after his son, and buried him there. Afterwards he flew to Sicily, built a temple to the God Apollo, and hung his wings up there vowing never to fly again.

I see this as a heavily engaged story about a son who was over ambitious and did not head the words of his father, thus, reaching to far and getting in over his head. This leads to a terrible end for Icarus and anyone else that does not heed wise advice. It is this wisdom that teaches us to think before we act.


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The moral of the story gives it perennial appeal in the fact that generation after generation is affected by the outcomes of action before thought, and not heeding to elders advice. This is also a universal issue due to this being a problem everywhere for mothers and fathers with their children.

Each poet gets a separate type of inspiration from this story. Sexton puts it as long as it was fun and memorable the outcome is worth it. If you had fun doing it, why does it matter what happens later. Whereas Wagner sees it as a more modern way of saying Icarus was sorry but because of what he had done he lost everything that was important to him. That makes Icarus sorry for what he did. A lesson learned and able to be repeated if no thought is put forth.

Vassar Miller sees it in another fashion of the mind. This is to say that imagination takes hold and takes us anywhere we want to go, not knowing where it will take us in the end. It could take us to outsoar all Heaven or plummet us all the way to the depths of Hell. Williams has still another form of translation, however, with Icarus, full foolish pride falls and nobody notices because there life is indifferent to his. He says with all aspects of foolish pride and over ambition, each person is relative to him or herself. It is his own fault and life will go on. Each person’s actions determine his or her own fates. The splash going unnoticed signifies that he acted on his own accord, is responsible for his own actions, and no need to feel sorry for him, he decided his own fate.

The overall moral is still held true, however, in all poems, do not try to achieve too much keep it at a doable level and do not reach to far or take on more than you can handle. Yet be proud of those who try and achieve what you thought impossible along with the achievement of an elemental goal.

All morals and teachings derived from this myth were true from day one. All people at one time or another have attempted something and fallen short. After reconsideration, you reattempt with all facts and figures being met, and make it. This is how dreams of people succeed. If a plan is without thought, succession is rarely possible. Thought and understanding is a major key to implementation of a dream. Do not try to overachieve without listening to others because the outcome could be detrimental.


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Monday, October 24, 2011

Smallpox and the Vaccinia Vaccine

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SMALLPOX AND THE VACCINIA VACCINE

Smallpox is an acute, contagious, and sometimes fatal disease caused by the variola virus, which is a member of the orthopoxvirus family. It has two forms variola major and variola minor. Variola minor had a very low fatality rate, whereas the latter’s fatality rate was around thirty percent. The disease though, has now been eradicated after a worldwide vaccination program.

It is believed that smallpox originated over 1,000 years ago in India or Egypt and is one of the most devastating diseases known to humanity. In some ancient cultures, smallpox was such a major killer of infants that custom forbade the naming of a newborn until the infant had caught the disease and proved it would survive. The disease killed many kings, queens, and emperors. As many as thirty percent of those infected died and sixty-five to eighty percent of survivors were marked with deep pitted scars on their face. Blindness was also a complication reported from this disease that had no cure.


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In 1777, Edward Jenner demonstrated that inoculation with cowpox could protect against smallpox. During this time, medical personnel had noticed that milkmaids, exposed to cowpox were immune to smallpox. They began taking cowpox from cows and scratching it into the arms of people to protect them from smallpox. At some point, cowpox virus was replaced with vaccinia virus, which is ninety percent identical to smallpox but only rarely causes health problems.

Health systems around the world joined forces to vaccinate against smallpox and the disease was eradicated globally by the 1770’s. The last case of smallpox in the United States was in 1774 and the last naturally occurring case in the world was in Somalia in 1777. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine smallpox vaccination was stopped among the general public.

In the aftermath of events of September and October 2001, there is a heightened concern that the variola virus might be used as an agent of bioterrorism. Terrorists may have stores of weaponized smallpox or the ability to produce it. It is also possible that a smallpox-like virus could re-emerge in nature as a result of the many poxviruses that exist in animal species. Either of these instances could overwhelm communities, but the Centers for Disease Control National Immunization Program indicates there is enough smallpox vaccine in storage to inoculate the entire United States population.

This disease is difficult to detect because there are only flu-like symptoms and no rash in the beginning. When detected though, if the vaccinia vaccine is given within the first four days after exposure, it will prevent smallpox or significantly reduce the symptoms and risk of death. Smallpox can be spread by air droplets in face-to-face contact with an infected person. Ventilation systems, contaminated clothes, bedding, etc can also transmit it.

The incubation period of smallpox is usually twelve to fourteen days. During this time, the person looks and feels healthy and cannot infect others. This period is followed by the sudden onset of influenza-like symptoms including fever, headache, severe back pain, and abdominal pain and vomiting. Two or three days later, the temperature falls and the client feels somewhat better, then a rash appears, first on the face, hands, and forearms and then a few days later, progressing to the trunk. The rash progresses to papules one to two days after it appears; vesicles appear on the fourth or fifth day; pustules appear by the seventh day and scab lesions appear by the fourteenth day. Smallpox skin lesions are deeply embedded in the dermis and feel like firm round objects embedded in the skin. As the lesions heal, the scabs separate and pitted scarring gradually develops. Smallpox patients are the most infectious during the first week of the rash when the oral mucosa lesions ulcerate and release substantial amounts of virus into the saliva. A patient is no longer infectious after all scabs have separated.

Dryvax® is the vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine licensed in the United States that is a live-virus preparation of infectious vaccinia virus. This vaccine however, does not contain the smallpox virus. Vaccinia vaccine is a highly effective immunizing agent; it is the vaccine that enabled the global eradication of smallpox.

The vaccine itself can cause serious medical complications and possibly even death. The following have been listed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as risks that accompany the smallpox vaccination

- Mild rash

- Swelling and tenderness of lymph nodes

- Fever over 100º

- Secondary blisters elsewhere on the body

- Serious eye infection or loss of vision

- Rash on entire body

- Severe rash on people with eczema

- Encephalitis, which could lead to brain damage

- Severe infection at vaccination site

- Death

Even those who come in contact with the vaccination site can have some of the reactions listed above. The only product available for treatment of these complications is VIG, which is an isotonic sterile solution of the immunoglobin fraction of plasma from persons vaccinated with vaccinia virus.

Vaccinia virus can be cultured from the site of the primary vaccination beginning at the time of development of a papule until the scab separates from the skin lesion. Care must be taken to prevent contact of the site. It should be left uncovered or can be loosely covered with gauze until scab has separated on its own. The vaccination site should be kept dry and no salves or ointments should be applied to the site. Contaminated gauze and the scab, after it has fallen off, should be placed in a sealed plastic bag before disposal in the trash to prevent inadvertent transmission of the live virus in other materials. The site however, continues to shed live virus up to three to four weeks after receiving the vaccination.

The preferred sites for the vaccination are the skins over the insertion of the deltoid muscle or the posterior aspect of the arm over the triceps muscle. Alcohol is not required for skin preparation unless the area is grossly contaminated. If alcohol is used, the area should be completely dry before administering to prevent inactivation of the vaccine by the alcohol. The multiple puncture technique uses a pre-sterilized bifurcated (having two branches; forked) needle that is inserted vertically into the vaccine vial, causing a droplet of vaccine to adhere between the prongs of the needle. The droplet contains the recommended dosage of vaccine, and its presence within the prongs of the bifurcated needle should be confirmed visually. Holding the bifurcated needle perpendicular to the skin, fifteen punctures are rapidly made with strokes vigorous enough to allow a trace of blood to appear after fifteen to twenty seconds. Any remaining vaccine should be wiped off with dry sterile gauze and the gauze disposed of in a biohazard waste container. The site should be inspected six to eight days after the vaccination to determine the response.

Before administering vaccinia vaccine, the physician should complete a thorough patient history among vaccinees and their household contacts. The vaccine should not be administered in pregnant women for routine non-emergency indications. Complications for clients with HIV are unknown, children should not be given the vaccine unless in an emergency situation. Some allergy clients as well, should not be given the vaccine.

Healthcare workers, even if vaccinated, should wear gloves, caps, gowns, and surgical masks. Recently vaccinated healthcare workers should avoid contact with unvaccinated patients, until the scab has separated from the site. If contact is unavoidable, make certain that the site is well covered and thorough hand hygiene is maintained. Instruments should be decontaminated chemically or by heat. Contaminated bedding and clothing, if not incinerated, should be autoclaved or washed in hot water containing hypochlorite bleach. The premises may also be fumigated with formaldehyde.

If exposed to smallpox, immediately notify a healthcare facility for prompt action and to save your life. The report of a suspected smallpox case is a public health emergency. Keep in mind, the best prevention for this deadly disease is the vaccination.



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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Cold War- A War of Power Rivalry and Ideological Conflicts

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Has the Cold War been a clash of conflicting ideologies or primarily a chronicle of great power rivalry between the two new superpowers, the USA and the USSR? Justify your answer.

The Cold War has been a clash of conflicting ideologies and chronicle great power rivalry between the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR. These differences led to increasing tensions between the two powerful nations almost to the extent of nuclear war. The Berlin Blockade was a result of both conflicting ideologies and power rivalry between the USA and the USSR, which led many to believe that Berlin was the Barometer of Cold War tensions around the world. Furthermore, one of the most significant events during the Cold War where those conflicting ideologies and rivalries occurred was the Cuban Missile Crisis bringing the world to the brink of World War III. Therefore the Cold War was not only a clash of great power rivalry but also a clash of conflicting ideologies.

The Berlin Blockade was an ideological based occurrence that consequently led to a great power rivalry that lasted from 1948 to 1949. “When Truman became president of the USA, Churchill had told him how worried he was about the ‘descent of the Iron Curtain between us and everything to the East.’ ” (Sayer). It is therefore clear that the differences in ideologies between these the Soviet Union and the USA was evident and that Winston Churchill was concerned about the negative impact that this would have on the east and the rest of the world. The Berlin Blockade existed when “Two and a half million people in the Western Zones were denied essential supplies of food and fuel.” (Condon). The ideology behind this action of denying essential supplies to people in the Western Zones, was thought by the USA as an act of war by the USSR. It demonstrated to the world that the USSR could not manage under the pressures of the USA and the crisis, which virtually placed many countries in the ‘arms of America’. “Their different political theories, however, were significant factors in their fear of each other. Ideologies are ideas which are the basis of economic and political theories”.(Jones) Therefore it can be seen that the cause of the Berlin Blockade was the ideological differences between these powerful nations.

However through the ideological differences lies the superpower rivalry, which was clearly evident in the Berlin Blockade. “… the Americans recognising that the USSR had a huge advantage in armed force … sought a less provocative response. The answer to the blockade was an airlift of supplies into Berlin.” (Condon) This quote displays that the Americans had shown their domineering power by assisting other countries and obtaining trust and loyalty from these countries. “… the USA launched the Marshall Plan to aid economic recovery in Europe. The Soviets refused to allow members of their bloc to participate in the plan.” (Readers Digest) The Soviet Union and the USA were resentful of each other because the power that the two superpowers obtained threatened one another, which ultimately led to further superpower rivalry. “ Despite the alliance during the Second World War, the USA and the Soviet Union were mutually suspicious of each other. Once Germany had been defeated this mistrust re-emerged. Much of this hostility was due to the power of each country…” (Jones). Therefore the beginning of the Berlin Blockade was caused by ideological differences, however as it proceeded superpower rivalry was evident, as this was the situation in which the dispute between the nations had ended. This situation is also seen in the Cuban Missile Crisis.


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The Cuban Missile Crisis began due to the different ideological backgrounds of the superpowers but as it progressed it was obvious that it was simply a great power rivalry. These differences in ideologies erupted when Khruschev’s intention was to impose fear upon the United States of America by seeking the devotion of communism in Latin American countries. “ They feared us much as we hoped, that a socialist Cuba might become a magnet that would attract other Latin American countries to socialism”.  Khruschev (Condon). The Soviets were assisting Cuba through economic aid and also by ‘protecting’ Cuba from the USA. As a result of this, the USSR maintained a ‘big brother’ relationship with Cuba, however it was only to benefit their own needs. These ideologies provoked the two superpowers into a rivalry, which enhanced the relations of the Soviet Union and Cuba to assist their own needs. “ The Russians supplied machinery as well as technical aid to Cuba and bought the Cuban sugar crop. Khruschev also pledged to protect Cuba from the US should the Americans attempt to overthrow Castro’s regime.” (Condon) Kennedy essentially wanted security and assurance for his country. To ensure this security among the American people, “…Kennedy demanded that Khruschev remove all launching sites and small rockets already in Cuba.” (Sayer) However according to Fidel Castro, the tensions that alarmed the world in the crisis, was solely the American’s fault. “The Imperialists imposed a naval blockade, forcing the world to the brink of war. The crisis was the result of US aggressive policy, the culminating point of which was to be an armed invasion.” Therefore the Cuban Missile Crisis initiated from differences in ideologies; as a result these ideologies led to superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR.

It is clear that the Cuban Missile Crisis began with conflicting ideologies like the Berlin Blockade, however as it progressed the two superpowers built up a rivalry where they attempted to out perform each other. President Kennedy conveys the message that the USSR has threatened the Western Hemisphere by providing such powerful weapons that could cause massive destruction, as shown in the quote “The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide nuclear strike comparability against the Western Hemisphere.”  These antagonistic superpowers communicated through constant threats, which had brought the world into consternation. Also, the USA was fearful of these mass destructive weapons, as they were capable of exterminating America. “The crisis developed when US leaders learned that Soviet nuclear missiles capable of targeting the USA were being secretly installed in the bases in Cuba.

 As a part of great power rivalry, the USA accused the USSR of a deliberate change in the state of affairs concerning all nations and countries, which led to retaliation between these superpowers. “…this sudden, clandestive decision to station weapons for the first time… is provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country… any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the US ”. However the Soviets did not have the nuclear power status to overcome the Americans. “They knew the Russians would not dare to start another world war because they had not yet got atomic weapons like the Americans.” This quote indicates that the USA had some ‘control’ over this crisis due to their nuclear power situation, this in effect would mean that the Soviets would have to ‘back down’ from their threatening position as they could not compare nuclear status with the Americans. Therefore the evidence shown clearly indicates that the Cuban Missile Crisis was initiated from differences in ideologies and eventuated in great power rivalry.

The two superpowers of the twentieth century, the USA and the USSR, clashed through conflicting ideologies and also through great power rivalry in the Cold War. These conflicting ideologies and superpower rivalries are apparent in the two major turning points in history, the Berlin Blockade and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Therefore it can be seen that the Cold War was an ideological based war which had led to power rivalry between these nations.



Please note that this sample paper on Cold War- A War of Power Rivalry and Ideological Conflicts is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Cold War- A War of Power Rivalry and Ideological Conflicts, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Cold War- A War of Power Rivalry and Ideological Conflicts will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Jake Barnes vs. Lady Brett Ashley

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In 'The Sun Also Rises', four different men are compared and contrasted as they engage in some form of relationship with Lady Brett Ashley, a near-nymphomaniac Englishwoman who indulges in her passion for sex and control.

Jake Barnes, as the narrator and supposed hero of the novel, fell in love with Brett some years ago and is still powerfully and uncontrollably in love with her. However, Jake is unfortunately a casualty of the war, having been emasculated in a freak accident. Still adjusting to his impotence at the beginning of the novel, Jake has lost all power and desire to have sex. Because of this, Jake and Brett cannot be lovers and all attempts at a relationship that is sexually fulfilling are simply pointless. Brett is a passionate, lustful woman who is driven by the most intimate and loving act two may share, something that Jake just cannot provide her with. Jakes emasculation only puts the two in a grandly ironic situation. Brett is an extremely passionate woman but is denied the first man she feels true love and admiration for. Jake has loved Brett for years and cannot have her because of his inability to have sex.

It is obvious that their love is mutual when Jake tries to kiss Brett in their cab ride home. ( You mustn't. You must know. I can't stand it, thats all. Oh darling, please understand!, Don't you love me?, Love you? I simply turn all to jelly when you touch me. ) This scene is indicative of their relationship as Jake and Brett hopelessly desire each other but realize the senselessness of further actions. Together, they have both tried to defy reality, but failed. Jake is frustrated by Bretts reappearance into his life and her confession that she is miserably unhappy.

Jake asks Brett to go off with him to the country for bit ( Couldnt we go off in the country for a while?, It wouldn't be any good. I'll go if you like. But I couldn't live quietly in the country. Not with my own true love, I know, Isn't it rotten? There isn't any use my telling you I love you, You know I love you, Let's not talk. Talkings all bilge. ) Brett declines Jakes pointless attempt at being together. Both Brett and Jake know that any relationship beyond a friendship cannot be pursued. Jake is still adjusting to his impotence while Brett will not sacrifice a sexual relationship for the man she loves. Since Jake can never be Bretts lover, they are forced to create a new relationship for themselves - they have become best friends. This presents a great difficulty for Jake, because Bretts presence is both pleasurable and agonizing for him. Brett constantly reminds him of his handicap and thus Jake is challenged as a man in the deepest, most personal sense possible.

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After the departure of their first meeting, Jake feels miserable. (This was Brett, that I had felt like crying about. Then I thought of her walking up the street and of course in a little while I felt like hell again.) Lady Brett Ashley serves as a challenge to a weakness Jake must confront. Since his war experience, Jake has attempted to reshape the man he is and the first step in doing this is to accept his impotence. Despite Bretts undeniable love for Jake, she is engaged to marry another.

Jake, as the supposed hero of the novel, is challenged by his emasculation in the deepest sense possible, because the traditional ways in which masculinity are defined are insufficient and impossible for him. Jake needs the strength and courage to confront his impotence because he has not yet adjusted to this weakness. With the absence of a leading male ideal, Hemingway betrays the larger socio-cultural assumptions about men and masculinity and questions the conventional means in which they are defined in his society.



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CSC

If you order your essay from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on CSC. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality paper right on time.
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Guidelines for filling up the agreement

All entries are made neatly and legibly.

All addresses (Employee, Guarantor, Witnesses) have to be complete i.e. full postal address along with pincode.

Guarantor should be a relative of the employee (but not the spouse) and should have a separate income.

Guarantor’s photograph has to be pasted on the guarantor’s agreement. The guarantor is required to sign across the photo. This photo and signature has to be attested by a notary along with his seal across the photo.

Witnesses

Employee’s agreement The guarantor should be the witness.

Guarantor’s agreement The person attesting guarantor’s photo and signature should be the witness.

The agreements which do not conform to the above will be deemed to be incomplete.

You are requested to join along with duly signed bond papers & original educational documents.

D. WHEREAS, CSCI, agrees to incur expenses towards the enhancement of the Employee’s skill through this training, and also pay the salary to the employee while the employee is receiving the training

E. WHEREAS, Employee has agreed and undertaken to serve CSCI for a minimum period of 4 months, after completing the training and has entered into an agreement dated referred to as the Agreement), which is a part and parcel of this Guarantee.

F. WHEREAS Employee has agreed to pay CSCI a sum of rupees 1,00,000 (Rupees One lakh) as liquidated damages on account of breach of Agreement.

Now, therefore, in consideration of mutual promises and considerations between Employee and Guarantor, sufficiency of which is hereby acknowledged, the Guarantor agrees to do the following

1. The guarantor undertakes that he/she is financially independent and capable to give this guarantee and pay liquidated damages in case of breech of agreement.

2. The Guarantor binds himself/herself personally to pay CSCI any and all money due to it from Employee with regard to the liquidated damages accrued in the event of breach of Agreement by the employee within 0 days of the said amount demanded by CSCI.

3. The parties hereto agree that the agreements and covenants contained herein are severable, and in the event of any one of them is held to be invalid by a competent court, said invalid agreements and covenants shall not affect the enforceability or validity of the remainder of the Agreement.

4. The guarantor undertakes the responsibility to inform CSC India of nay changes in his/her residential address.

5. In case of breach of agreement CSCI reserves the right to execute the agreement in whatever way it deems fit, directly or through its authorized representatives, to recover the liquidated damages.

6. The guarantor undertakes that in the event of death of the guarantor his/her legal heirs also inherit the legal and financial liability to pay CSCI liquidated damages in case of breach of agreement.

7. Any matter of disputes or differences arising out of or in connection with this Agreement or by virtue of these presents or in respect of a claim made by one party and denied or remaining unanswered / unattended by the other party, then the said dispute, difference or claim shall be referred to arbitration of a sole arbitrator to be appointed by CSCI and the guarantor shall not take any objection in regard to the appointment of the sole arbitrator. Non payment of liquidated damages including failure to respond to the demand shall be deemed to be a dispute.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual promises and convenants herein set forth and other good and valuable consideration the receipt and sufficiency of hereby acknowledged, the parties hereto agree as follows

1. The Employee, after completion of the technical training, has agreed to serve CSCI (at its offices located in India) for a period of 4 months. The agreement would be effective from the date of start of training but the duration of 4 months would start from the date of completion of training. In case the employee takes leave without pay for more than 15 days during the tenure of service agreement, the duration of the service agreement will get extended by an equal number of days taken as leave without pay.

2. Employee agrees to perform services and assignments for CSCI, diligently and efficiently until such time as those services and assignments are completed to the satisfaction of CSCI, or until otherwise determined by CSCI. In case CSCI takes action under the disciplinary procedure which results in the dismissal of the employee undertakes to pay CSCI the sum mentioned in the clause C.

3. It being impractical to ascertain or estimate the actual cost, damage or injury which CSCI may sustain, should Employee breach the terms and conditions of this Agreement as set forth above, Employee agrees and undertakes to pay to CSCI a sum of Rupees, 1,00,000 (Rupees One lakh), as liquidated damages, to compensate CSCI for damages by reason of such breach. It is further clarified that the said amount is only a damage and is not the nature of penalty.

4. The parties hereto agree that the agreement and covenants contained herein are severable, and in the event any one of them is held to be invalid by a competent court, said invalid agreements and covenants shall not affect the enforceability or validity of the remainder of this Agreement.

5. The employee undertakes the responsibility to inform CSC India of any changes in his/her residential address.

6. Any matter of disputes or differences arising out of or in connection with this Agreement or by virtue of these presents or in respect of a claim made by one party and denied or remaining unanswered / unattended by the other party, then the said dispute, difference or claim shall be referred to arbitration of a sole arbitrator to be appointed by CSCI and the employee shall not take any objection in regard to the appointment of the sole arbitrator. Non payment of liquidated damages including damages including failure to the demand shall be deemed to be a dispute.

It is agreed between the parties that any notice, claim or other communication required to be sent by CSCI shall be deemed to be received if it is sent by a registered post to the last known address of the employee along with the same being sent under certificate of posting.




Please note that this sample paper on CSC is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on CSC, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on CSC will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.
Order your authentic assignment from  custom writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!