Monday, November 21, 2011

ADS Networks

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Executive Summary

ADS Networks, an IT company seeks to determine how sensitive the workplace climate is to employee work-life balance.

People have to contend with different roles in life. There is the requirement for one to perform at a high level in the workplace and balance this with the responsibility of taking care of other issues in life. Work-life conflict is possible when the demands of one role conflicts with another.

In order to measure the sensitivity to work-life issues this paper uses a survey sourced from an Internet website which is an authority on work-life issues. The survey comprising twenty questions was distributed amongst employees in the various business units in a random manner. The results of the survey were analyzed and conclusions were drawn from the survey in an attempt to answer the following questions

· To what extent are work-life balance issues having an adverse impact on the employees of ASD Networks?

· The results of the survey indicate there is a degree of sensitivity to work-life but there is great scope for improvement. There appears to be a negative effect on employee morale and loyalty.

· How does attainment of a work-life balance affect the workplace and personal life?

· A workplace that is sensitive to work-life balance has numerous positive benefits for employer and employee.

· What issues influence the achievement of work-life balance?

· The factors that most influence the achievement of work-life balance are support of management in the organization, flexibility of management, two-way communication, resources, teamwork and a positive attitude.

· The leadership style of the company’s managers has a great impact on the attainment of work-life sensitivity.

· What can be done to better manage work and personal life at ASD networks?

· Recommendations are made on what actions employers and employees can take to reduce work-life conflict situations.

The ability to achieve the right work-life balance sensitivity is a strategic victory for any company. There exists a challenge to implement and manage winning work/life formulas at ASD Networks. Failure to address the issues could have a detrimental effect on the performance of the company in the long term.


Contents

1. Introduction

2. Literature Review

3. Methodology

4. Research Results

5. Analysis of research results

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

7. Bibliography

8. Appendix


Introduction

It has become necessary for organizations to attract and retain the services of high performing individuals in the competitive labour market. In most cases these individuals are deeply motivated, identify strongly with the organization and are considered highly loyal to their organizations. Bartlet and Ghoshal (2004) recognize that the company’s scarce resource is knowledgeable people, which require a shift in the whole concept of value management within the corporation.

The valued types of employees exhibit the kinds of behaviours that make businesses successful, they work hard, stay late, go the extra mile to delight the customer, and recommend the company to their friends as a good place to work (Sweetman)


Organizations that seek to increase employee morale, commitment and satisfaction and reduce sources of stress and problems at work will improve their ability to recruit and retain talented and valued employees (Cappelli).


What is work/life balance? It is simply attaining a balance between work and personal life responsibilities. Magid, Codkind (1957) are of the view that a subtle evolution has transformed the workforce and the workplace. The work and personal life dynamic has taken on new and different meanings within contemporary society. We are witnessing radical transformations in values, loyalties, and patterns of work and personal life. Individuals have adopted new and different attitudes toward work and it’s relationship to their personal lives. The new worker is becoming increasingly concerned over quality of life issues, and this includes both work and personal issues. These changes have had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on traditional workplace relationships, and will affect the workforce, the workplace, and more broadly, employer responsibility. It is thus imperative that ASD Networks have human resource strategies for attaining work/life balance.

Mastery over work time pressure is vital for a person to have a high quality of life. Work/life conflict occurs when there is problem balancing the requirements of work and personal life. Organizational issues like job satisfaction, workload, work stress, job security, physical work environment, respect and management can impact work/life balance.


Literature Review

Morgan (cited in Mclimore, Larwood) maintains that a company’s people make the difference, not the organization. It follows that people are a company’s most valuable resource. People change things and, hence, can make a major difference in a company’s performance… Another important aspect of management skill is the ability to motivate people. This motivation cannot be based on fear, or even your position. Rather, it is based on respect. People can do their work for you in many different styles. They can march in step, they can drag their feet, or they can climb the mountain for you. To be most productive, you have to create the atmosphere in which people are going to climb the mountain for you because they want to. It takes hard work to create that atmosphere, but it can be done. (Magid, Codkind) are of the view that a subtle evolution has transformed the workforce and the workplace. The work and personal life dynamic has taken on new and different meanings within contemporary society. We are witnessing radical transformations in values, loyalties, and patterns of work and personal life. Individuals have adopted new and different attitudes toward work and it’s relationship to their personal lives. The new worker is becoming increasingly concerned over quality of life issues, and this includes both work and personal issues. These changes have had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on traditional workplace relationships, and will affect the workforce, the workplace, and more broadly, employer responsibility. (Bartlet and Ghoshal) recognize that the company’s scarce resource is knowledgeable people, which require a shift in the whole concept of value management within the corporation.


According to Kelly (cited in HBR) organizations must strive for effective followers who think for themselves and carry out their duties and assignments with energy and assertiveness. Because they are risk takers, self-starters and independent problem solvers, they get consistently high ratings from peers and many superiors. Followership of this kind can be a positive and acceptable choice for parts or all of our lives and a source of pride and fulfillment.

Important requirements for a work/life balance sensitive workplace are support, flexibility, two-way communications, access to resources, teamwork and a positive attitude (Magid, Codkind)

Support
 Managerial and organizational supports are key factors in the competence levels employees experience as they struggle with work/personal life concerns. Employees want to know that they can attend to personal needs without calling in sick for the day and feeling guilty about lying to a manager. Employees need to occasionally take an hour or two off during the middle of the day to take an ailing parent to the doctor and make up their work at a later time. Knowing that they will not be penalized provides the kind of support employees need when faced with conflicting work and personal life demands.

Flexibility
Asking managers to be more flexible with employee policies often require a dramatic break with past practices. A change to a more flexible supervisory style causes some managers to feel caught in a double bind. That is, they are held accountable by top management for results, yet they need to consider supporting their employees by being more understanding about personal and family needs.

Frequently, managers are concerned about fairness. For example, if they allow an employee to leave work early to attend a conference at a child’s school, will they be accused by other employees of being unfair? Or will employees without children resent a coworker who receives an “extra”?

Two-way communications
Open, ongoing dialogue is crucial. Listening without diagnosing, and not judging and employee’s personal life issue is always appreciated.

Resources
Access to people, training, information and materials can help with decision making and problem solving about both work and personal life needs.

Teamwork
Working together to develop mutually acceptable strategies for managing issues, monitoring progress, being open to backup plans if one fails and empowering employees to make appropriate decisions are all excellent ways to help employees to experience competence on and of the job.

Positive Attitude
Acknowledge the impact of personal life responsibilities on employees. Demonstrate a “can do” attitude encouraging the employee and modeling positive behaviours. Negative responses only serve to increase employee stress, anxiety and frustration over personal life issues.

Life for many people (Torrington, Weightman) is surprisingly rigid nine till five for five days a week with a few individual days’ holiday at religious festivals and three or four weeks’ annual holiday, which must be taken within a twelve month period…Patterns of employment are changing, with many variations on that basic theme emerging towards the close of the century…Changing patterns enable people to break out of that rigidity and find a more personalized mode.

Kotter (cited in HBR ) believed there is a real challenge to combine strong leadership and strong management and use each to balance the other. Leadership is concerned with developing a vision of the future along with strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision. Aligning people according Kotter (cited in HBR) means communicating the new direction to those who can create coalitions that understand the vision and are committed to its achievement. Achieving a vision requires motivating and inspiring, keeping people moving in the right direction, despite major obstacles to change, by appealing to basic but often untapped human needs, values and emotions.

Organizations that seek to increase employee morale, commitment and satisfaction and reduce sources of stress and problems at work will improve their ability to recruit and retain talented and valued employees. (Cappelli).

If your company is run “by the book”, if the job description is more important than the man, if organizational charts take precedence over the realities of personal relationships, your organization is in danger of succumbing to an all-too-common form of creeping paralysis (Randall).

Most managers today understand the strategic implications of the information-based, knowledge driven, service-intensive economy. They know what the new game requires speed, flexibility and continuous self-renewal. They even are recognizing that skilled and motivated people are central to the operations of any company that wishes to flourish in the new age. And yet, a decade of organizational delayering, destaffing, restructuring and engineering has produced employees who are now more exhausted than empowered, more cynical than self-renewing. Worse still, in many companies only marginal managerial attention if that is focused on the problems of employee capability and motivation. Somewhere between theory and practice, precious human capital is being misused, wasted or lost (Bartlet and Ghoshal).


Walker Information Global Network and the Hudson Institute conducted a landmark global study on work-force issues. The study confirms the useful clich that people are people wherever they live, and that most people care deeply about the same few things. In the workplace, people everywhere ask, Am I fairly compensated for my work? Am I well suited for my work? Does my employer trust me to do that work?


The researchers segmented the world’s employee population as follows 4% of worldwide employees are Truly Loyal, 8% are Accessible, 1% are Trapped and 7% are High Risk. The Truly Loyal exhibit the kinds of behaviours that make businesses successful, they work hard, stay late, go the extra mile to delight the customer, and recommend the company to their friends as a good place to work. The Accessible feel and act as committed as the Truly Loyal, but for reasons unrelated to Loyalty, may leave within two years (perhaps a spouse is transferring, or childcare needs intervene). Trapped employees want to leave their jobs but for one reason or another feel they cannot. High Risk employees are spending their working hours clicking through monster.com or whatever the local alternative may be. Six out of ten High Risk employees would not recommend their organization as a good place to work. The study emphasized ethics because of its high impact on employee loyalty. Employees who perceive their employers ethical are more likely to be proud to be associated with the company (Sweetman).

Despite several generations of management and organization theories that emphasize the importance of human resources, the idea that workers are the key to achieving all business goals remains a very hard sell (Lowe).


Methodology

Primary data was referenced in this study. The required data was gathered by means of a questionnaire distributed amongst the employees of ADS networks. The questionnaire seeks to assess the sensitivity of the workplace to work/life balance issues. The questionnaires included a short note detailing the purpose of the research as well as promoting involvement of employees and guaranteeing their anonymity. It was requested that the subjects partake in the survey in a confidential manner.

20 questionnaires were distributed and 7 were returned yielding a response rate of 10 percent.

The questionnaire (as cited in www.workfamily.com) required a negative or positive response to the following questions. A KEYWORD is assigned to each question for referencing purposes in the analysis.

1. My manager/supervisor treats my work-life needs with sensitivity. [SENSITIVITY]

2. It is usually easy for me to manage the demands of both work and home life. [DEMANDS]

3. My career path at this company is limited because of the pressures of home life demands. [PATH]

4. My job at this company keeps me from maintaining the quality of life I want. [QUALITY]

5. My manager/supervisor is supportive when home life issues interfere with work. [SUPPORT]

6. My manager/supervisor focuses on results, rather than the time I am at my desk. [RESULTS]

7. My manager/supervisor has a good understanding of flexible work practices. [FLEXIBLE]

8. If I requested a flexible work arrangement my manager/supervisor would support me. [ARRANGEMENT]

9. My manager/supervisor is often inflexible or insensitive about my personal needs. [INFLEXIBLE]

10. I believe my manager/supervisor treats me with respect. [RESPECT]

11. My manager/supervisor allows me informal flexibility as long as I get the job done. [INFORMAL]

12. My manager/supervisor tends to treat us like children. [CHILDEREN

13. My manager/supervisor seldom gives me praise or recognition for the work I do. [PRAISE]

14. My manager/supervisor seems to care about me as a person. [CARE]

15. I would recommend this company to others. [RECOMMEND]

16. The work I do is not all that important to this company’ success. [IMPORTANCE]

17. If I could find another job with better pay, I would leave this organization. [PAY]

18. If I could find another job where I would be treated with respect, I would take it. [TREATMENT]

19. If I could find another job where I could have more flexibility, I would take it. [ANOTHER]

20. I am totally committed to this company. [COMITTMENT]


Research Results

Results Matrix1

Respondents’ scores are calculated in the last column of Results Matrix1 as per the method provided at www.workfamily.com

· For a perfect score, employees should answer “Disagree” for questions ,4,1,1 and Agree for all the rest.

· To score, begin by giving each respondent 0 points. Then deduct one point for every “wrong” answer. Add up the total scores, and divide by the number of respondents (See Response Average in Results Matrix1.


Response Average

· If your score is 18 to 20 Congratulations! Your organization is leading the nation in the area of flexibility and supportiveness.

· If your score is 14 to 17 Your organization is probably more supportive and flexible than most, with room to grow.

· If your score is 11 to 15 As the race for talent tightens up again, your employees may be open to the next good offer.


Analysis of Research Results

The completed questionnaire data was summarized in an Excel spreadsheet. Spreadsheet formulae were used in accordance with the scoring instructions from www.workfamily.com to score the survey.

There was positive expression towards manager/supervisor awareness [SENSITIVITY] to work/life issues 70% vs. 30%. The figure of 70% indicates there is an understanding by managers to appreciate work/life issues but there is potential for improvement.

Similarly 70% of respondents believe they are easily managing the demands of work and home life [DEMANDS]. The remaining 0% of respondents are experiencing some level of work/life conflict with their current environment. In good agreement with the above result 1% of respondents believe the pressure of home life affects their career path at ASD Networks [PATH]. It was also found that 8% of the respondents believed their manager/supervisor was supportive [SUPPORT] when home life issue interfered with work. It would appear from the above there is sensitivity to work/life issues by managers.

Only 7% of respondents felt their manager focused on results rather than the time spent at their desk [RESULTS indicating the possible presence of a rigid, authoritarian style of management style and appears inconsistent with the fact that 78% of respondents believed their manager would support them if a flexible work arrangement were requested [ARRANGEMENT].

There were 85% of respondents who believed there manager treats them with respect [RESPECT] while 70% felt they were allowed informal flexibility [INFORMAL] to get the job done.

There were % of respondents who believed their supervisor treated them like children [CHILDEREN] while 5% felt their manager seldom gave praise or recognition for their work [PRAISE]. Only 6% of respondents believed their manager cared for them as a person [CARE] and 5% of respondents would recommend the company to others [RECOMMEND].

More than two thirds of respondents perceived the work they do to be of importance to the organization [IMPORTANCE] while 80% would leave the organization for higher pay [PAY].

A significant 5 % of respondents would leave for an organization where they would be treated with greater respect [RESPECT] while 6 percent would leave to a more flexible organization [ANOTHER].

Less than two thirds of respondents felt they were totally committed to the company.

The response average was 1 which is interpreted as follows

· If your score is 11 to 1 As the race for talent tightens up again, your employees may be open to the next good offer.


Conclusion and Recommendation

The results of the survey indicate that managers are attempting to be sensitive to work/life issues at ASD Networks. However there were many inconsistent findings showing the lack of a clear strategy for attaining employee work/life balance.

The survey results pertaining to keywords “CHILDEREN, PRAISE, CARE, RESPECT” indicate lack of effective leadership skills by managers/supervisors. This is not an uncommon occurrence in organizations today.


Bibliography

Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal,S (2000). ‘Building Competitive Advantage through People.’ MIT Sloan Management Review. Vol 4-, p.4

Cappelli, P. ‘A market-driven approach to retaining talent’ Harvard Business Review, p. 10

Kelly, R.E. ‘In praise of followers.’ Harvard Business Review, p. 86

Kotter, J.P.  ‘What Leaders really do.’ Harvard Business Review.

Lowe, G. The Quality of Work A People-Centred Agenda. Toronto Oxford University Press

Magid, Renee and Codkind, Melissa. Work and Personal Life. California Crisp Publications.

Mintzberg, Henry. Mintzberg on Management. New York The Free Press.

Morgan, F.J. ‘What Managers Need.’ Strategies…Successes…Senior Executives speak out, p15-15

Randall, C.B. The Folklore of Management. New York John Wiley & Sons.

Rausch, Erwin. Balancing needs of people and organizations The Linking Elements Concept. Washington The Bureau of National Affairs

Sweetman, K.J. ‘Employee Loyalty Around The Globe.’ MIT Sloan Management Review. p.16

Torrington, Derek and Weightman, Jane. Effective Management- People and Organization. Hertfordshire Prentice Hall International

Worklife Services. Worklife Survey [online]. New York. Available from http//www.workfamily.com/open/Short_survey.asp



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Sunday, November 13, 2011

Hirst and Emin

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Since the late 1980’s British artists Tracey Emin and Damien Hirst have been both admired and hated for their highly controversial work. This essay will focus on their values and beliefs as artists and how these messages are conveyed in their artwork. For the purpouse of this essay I have defined values as worth in usefulness, highly regarded and important to the possesor, and beliefs as the feeling of certainty that something exists or is true. It is the mental acceptance of and conviction in the truth, actuality or validity of something.

Hirst, received the Turner Prize in 1995. He aims to shock as well as portray his personal beliefs in a very original and obscure manner. Emin’s work includes the famous embroidered tent Everyone I slept with and My Bed. The Sensation shows in London and New York sparked up major controversy and outrage with Emin and Hirst being the centre of scrutiny. This attention emerged to debates about the role of art and the extent that it has stretched to. This shows how these artists will put their reputation on the line and allow themselves to be scrutinised and judged in order to inflict upon society what they value and believe in. Despite the outrage Sensation was successful and it was the public’s dislike of these works that heightened their appeal. This exhibition did prove that art in any form is the highest form of expression.

To gain a valuable insight into the meaning and significance of an artwork one must consider the cultural context in order to understand direct and indirect portrayals of values and beliefs. It is sometimes hard to understand these values and beliefs when you are faced with highly grotesque works from the likes of Hirst and Emin. Some works that appear extremely disturbing have been described as “optimistic, life affirming and celebrating”. So one wonders what values a maggot infested cows’ head represents?

Unlike Hirst's opinionated work about immortality and death, Emin’s art is representative of her emotions and life experience. She has been said to produce autobiographical art, raw pieces that form a sort a confessional. Stating “There should be something revelatory about art” her works serve as a way in which her intimate feelings and insecurities are expressed. Over the years there has been a debate of how values and beliefs are placed within an artwork. Her artwork titled 'My Bed' is a recreation of the scene she spent four days contemplating suicide and this shows where her values lie. It is a way of dealing with her trauma such as her abortion, rape, drinking and it is her beliefs about these very issues that come through in her works. One such example is a patchwork embroided about the death of a baby featured in her latest exhibition You forgot to kiss my soul. Although the portrayal of what you believe in is important the general idea of art today dictates that the meaning is not fulfilled without the interaction of the viewer. This is important because these artworks are so complex they can be interpreted in various ways and individuals do perceive them differently. As is expressed in various critics articles within contemporary visual culture today “ the meaning of an artwork is often seen as fluid- because it is not fixed to one viewpoint, time or place.”


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When asked about the cows’ head Hirst initially commented that his intention was “ to make people feel like burgers”. The belief that is portrayed through the maggot infested cow’s head is the concept of life and death. The maggots represent the concept of decay and the inevitability of death . But as mentioned above Hirst sees his work as optimistic. The artist uses the disturbing content to make the viewer indulge in everyday items and in life itself which he/she may take for granted. This idea of death and carnage is enforced in many works such as 'This Little Piggy Went To The Market', 'This Little Piggy Stayed Home'. This particular piece is of a bisected pig in formal mounted on an automated track. Not only did this piece outrage viewers but it forced them to stare death in the face. “When death becomes art, we can’t avert our eyes. I hope it makes people think of what they take for granted. Like smoking, like sex, like love, like life, like advertising, like death…I want to make people frightened of what they know. I want to make them question.”

The themes of death and decay is explored in more detail in 'Lost Love, Love Lost' and in other works with rotting animal parts. This is a contrast between Emin and Hirst. Hirst seems to indulge in a range of themes that are global whilst Emin is more self-absorbed using art as a way of finding closure and expressing the pain, emotion and events in her life. It seems as if when she portrays events such as photographs of the destruction of paintings due to her abortion, she is putting the pain in a gallery and using this as a way of dealing with what goes wrong and is inevitable. One of her early exhibition 'My Major Retrospective', also enforces this as it shows a story of tradgedy, pain and sexual abjection. Her art is mainly about disclosure and she explores this in diverse ways.

To convey their values and beliefs both Hirst and Emin take objects out of context and as Hirst says “relocates meaning”. Emin does this through 'My Bed'. In his works titled 'Holidays/no Feelings' and 'Party Time'. Hirst conveys his feelings on issues such as smoking by using an ashtray with a massive ciggarette landfill. He portrays his beliefs about chemical dependance, preservation, and disease through an installation titled Pharmacy.

Despite their strange subject matter both artists seem to be on a quest of producing pieces that make their existence worthwhile and somehow in their eyes justify this increasingly “unjust” world. Hirst uses poetic titles that contrast with the content of his works in order to confuse the viewer just as Marcel Duchamp did in 2010 with his ready-mades. “I really like those long clumsy titles which try to explain something but end up making it worse, leaving huge holes for interpretation”.

It is arts’ advantage to be highly capable of recording the artists’ beliefs, and both Hirst and Emin use this to their advantage to “express their phylosophy of life”. Hirsts’ works ranging from the spot paintings to the animal parts are not intended to be aesthetic or amusing but rather confrontational. The painting may seem innocent and pleasant but relates to drugs/pills. In contrast Emin’s work is a little amusing as well as tragic due to her outlook on life and eccentric personality. They allow their reputation and personality to become part of every piece. While Emin dramatisizes and is more outrageous Hirst seem to not care what anyone thinks of him. “I don’t give a f about what people say”, and it is precisely this attitude that adds to the controversy and appeal for many. Their work, their personalities and in turn their values and beliefs are so outrageous they have art buyers like Saatchi offering to buy artworks that he hasn’t yet layed eyes on.

Both Hirst and Emin use existing objects but also experiment greatly with mixed media. Hirst believes that it is far more important to assemble objects in order to achieve a meaning rather than assuring people that you can draw well. It is these viewpoints that challenge the boundaries of art. Sometimes they challenge them so far that people initially react in a violent manner. Hirst’s Away From The Flock which featured a preserved lamb was vandalised at an exhibition when someone threw ink into the tank. Similarly Emin’s My Bed was also vandalised at an exhibition. In the past artists would have been outraged but this just adds to Hirst and Emin’s popularity and artistic status. Living in a world where most are conforming Hirst based a piece titled Isolated Elements Swimming in the Same direction for the purpouse of understanding. As expressed by his mother this does mirror society and it is a very sad thing. He does not only reflect his personal valus but also society’s.

Even though their art is critisized their popularity is soaring. The fact that they are so popular shows that the public does to an extent identify and accept their values and beliefs. Through controversy emerges diverse material and due to this BritArt has never had a larger audience. Debates do arise and some do get very serious and this shows how important the art genre really is. Whether it is controversial or conforming art for some has always been a successful way out. “The art world’s about money but art is about life”. 1 Based critics articles on Emin and Hirst I have come to realise that people thrive on controversy and are challenged by this work. It is the artists beliefs and values that clash with societys restricted values and beliefs. What these artists are aiming to do is not only project their unique personality but also push society in a different direction to see things in a different way. This is why work that was branded “conceptual bullshit”(Kim Howells) is now being recognised not for its content but for its success in changing the concept of art. Once branded as “crap” these artists have come to dominate British Conceptual art and be very influential as individuals. This is ideally the reason as to why these artists succeed as much shock.




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