Tuesday, January 31, 2012

What is Literature?

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Outline four main points of the article 'What is Literature?'

1. Literature has been placed on a paradoxical situation

Literature seems to approaching end in this modern century because the emergence of different media. And words are almost replaced by sounds and images. Besides, the recent definition of literature also restricts the its area covered. As the reasons mentioned above, the literature come to an end. However, literature is, in fact, something perennial and universal. Literature will not disappear until the end of human time. That means, literature will exist with the human society and culture. It can be proved by some inherited plays, songs and writing. In sum, literature is placed on a paradoxical situation, which somehow confuses people.

2. Spread of Literature

There are some reasons responsible for the spread of literature. The first one is the growth of printed books and newspaper. In the meantime, literacy of people was widespread. Thus, literature can be developed.

The second reason is the freedom of speech and access to printed material had been greatly increased in modern democracies. People can express themselves and criticize things freely. It encourages people to think and imagine the materials they read. Besides, the laws protect the speech of individuals or groups. And this protection can be reflected in the statement we often see, "Any resemblance to real person, living or dead, is purely coincidental." Therefore, people are granted more room for their writing.

The last reason is literature itself is a powerful tool to spread and enter people¡¦s heart, such as bible and Shakespeare writing. These literature not only change our mind but also or behaviours. Therefore, literature is conductive in nature.


3. Decline of Literature

The first reason is the globalization of the world. Most countries are now multilingual and mutli-cultural. People living in these countries would have different cultures and backgrounds. The bond of literature within a country is thus weakened and the literature cannot uniquely developed.

Another reason is nowadays literature is gradually replaced by mutli-media and internet, there are a lot of written works being re-edited and shown on the TV or radio programmes. Although people still can get the content and the ideas of those works, but they do so by secondary resource rather than the primary resource, that is the original works. And this will hinder the study and further research on literature.

The last reason is the attitude towards literature has been changed. Nowadays, literature may be considered outdated and obsolete. In addition, the literature departments of universities are now finding difficulties in getting funding to do researches on the literary works since the society no longer needs the university as the primary place to study literature. Those researches can be done in humanities department in colleges or universities and it leads the literature department loses its standing.

In conclusion, the decline of literature thanks to the globalization, the growth of mutli-media and the attitude towards literature. With the growth of technology, the importance of literature has been being ignored.


4. Literature is a path to access imaginary world

Literature is not only a path to express or access reality, but also to access our imaginary world. Literature, indeed, does reflect the social situation and even national culture at the time the works being written. It means, literary works in different period indicate different thoughts. Besides, literature is a place where people can express or present their imaginations or hope of Utopia. Through the power of words in the literary works, sometimes changes of social atmosphere can be occurred by literary influence to readers.



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Monday, January 30, 2012

Customer service in the travel and tourism industry

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Customer Service in the travel and tourism industry

Customer service is very important in the travel and tourism industry since the industry involves selling a service rather than a product therefore without customers there would be no business.

The main principles of customer service are:

1. Maintain and establish good customer service. An organisation should listen clearly to customers to identify their needs and understand what they want. They should try to satisfy these needs by any means possible. The level of customer service should then be kept to a high standard. My company, Music Festivals and Concerts in Glasgow should keep a high standard of customer service by making sure employees are polite, knowledgable, helpful, presented neatly and properly, and will go that extra mile for customers.

2. Internal and external customers have to be treated the same. There would be no business if there was no one to run the business and serve the customers. There would be no business without the customers since they are an organisations means of profit. This principle ensures that there is a commitment of customer service from the top of the organisation and is followed down to the employee who serves the customer. The company may wish to offer employees discounts for festivals or concerts or organise employee nights out. This is so staff morale is high and makes employees generally happier.

3. Evaluation of levels of customer service. An organisation must check that its level of customer service is appropiate. It must do this by collecting customer input e.g customer surveys etc. The company could hand out questionnaires to customers asking for their opinion on the type of music, venue, catering facilities at festivals and concerts that they run and ask their opinion on the companys service levels in general. Music Festivals and Concerts in Glasgow could also ask their staff for their opinions which would make them happy as they will feel that their opinion is valued.

4. Adjust. If the level of customer service is not adequate then by using the results of customer input an organisation must improve or change appropiate areas of their customer service. At this point some employers may take the opportunity to train their staff at customer service. The company could change the type of music at their concerts if feedback from customers were negative. If they get bad feedback from customers regarding customer service in the company, then they may think about sending their staff to a Welcome Host course.


Quality customer service can bring a positive effect on business success.

Importance of quality customer service:

1. Quality customer service ensures the loyalty of customers. Customers who receive quality customer service are likely to return to the same place. This can give a company an edge over competition.

2. Quality customer service promotes good business. Customers who are satisfied by the level of your company's customer service is likely to tell their family and friends. This increases sales for the company therefore more profit. The organisation may need less money to market themselves since they will have a good reputation.

3. Quality customer service can help develop the right products and services. An organisation can match products and services to customers requirements which means less waste of money and time on products and services that customers don't want.

4. Quality customer service makes a happier and more efficient workforce. Satisfied customers are likely to be nice back to staff. This in turn makes staff happy and makes them work better. This also causes improved co-operation between departments and a decrease in staff being absent.

Customer service initiatives are there to help organisations make their workforce better and improve customer satisfaction in the travel and tourism industry as a whole. It also helps customers recognise an organisation's high standards of customers service.

Examples of customer service initiatives are:

1. Welcome Host

Welcome Host offers courses which provide an opportunity for employees in the service sector to improve the quality and delivery of the tourism product in Scotland. They aim to improve communications, enhance skills, provide higher standards and increase job satisfaction. The course highlights the imprtance of customer care.The course helps to develop improves standards of service which will lead to satisfied customers, encourage higher spending, reduce complaints and gain repeat business.

2. Scotlands Best

Scotlands Best is a programme aimed at all areas of staff specifically in tourism business. The course aims to motivate staff, to practice good customer service, improve overall standards of performance, differentiates your organisation from competitors, helps to retain good staff and presents your company with a more professional image.


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Sunday, January 29, 2012

Skin Cancer

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Skin Cancer

The most common kind of cancer is skin cancer, affecting some 500,000 Americans yearly. But out of all the types of cancer there is, it is the most curable. About ninety five percent of people who have skin cancer are cured by drugs or surgery.

“Sunlight is regarded as a causative factor in more than 10% of skin cancers,” stated Lamberg. Skin cancer is the most serious consequence of over exposure to the sun. It is a delayed effect that usually doesn’t appear for many years. Since sun damage may not be immediately visible, many people don’t realize the dangers of tanning. Dr. Vivienne Nathanson said, “A Suntan isn’t a sign of good health, a tan even where there is no burning, always means that the skin has been damaged. Suntan isn’t nature’s own sunscreen.” A tan thickens the skin enabling it to tolerate the sun longer without burning but it does not offer full protection.

A few serious sunburns can increase a person’s risk for skin cancer. The lighter a person’s natural skin color is, the more likely he or she is to burn. Melanin in greater of lesser amounts is what separates skin types and determines how a person can handle the sun. People who stay out too long can get a burn that just as severe as one caused by a fire of boiling water. Ultraviolet B rays causes sunburn, but ultraviolet A rays are more harmful. It alone may lead to skin cancer. It actually damages the connective tissue at deeper levels.

Sunbeds first became popular in the 1970’s and have become a boom industry ever since. Surveys have shown that in the 16-34 age group, at least one person in four has used a sunbed. It is twice as popular with women than men to use a sunbed. Some people think that using tanning beds is safer than actually going out in the sun. That is not true. Leading doctors say, “All sunbed users should be given a compulsory warning that they are putting themselves at increased risk of skin cancer.” The chances of developing some tumors more than double with frequent sunbed use. “Occasional use can result in cancer, prematurely aged skin, eye damage, and suppression of the immune system,” Hope wrote. Other effects of too much sun are adverse reactions to certa drugs, which results in rashes, loss of skin color and photosensitivity.

Skin Cancer develops on the face, ears, neck, and the backs of hands, or any place where clothing does not cover the body. In the book Skin Disorders, it says that, “Most skin cancers are found in people who are over the age of 40. However, skin cancer may develop in children, teenagers, and young adults.” Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It causes 7,400 deaths in a year in the United States. Melanoma is only fatal if it is not treated early. The appearance of melanoma often develops in an existing mole that changes size, shape, or color. Treatment involves cutting out the growth and a small border of adjacent skin. Another form of treatment is electrodescian, which is another name for zapping the growth with an electric needle. It can grow downward invading healthy tissue and spread to the lymph nodes and internal organs. People are at a higher risk of developing melanoma, if a relative also developed it.

Basal-cell cancers are the most common form of skin cancers. It accounts for about 70% of total cases. But it is the most easy to treat. They usually occur where the sun strikes the hardest, on the face and the neck. According to Lamberg, “Basal-cell often start as a small bump and later grow wider and more elevated, often with a depression in the center. Their color is similar to that of normal skin, although their surface is shiny of pearly and run through with tiny blood vessels.”

A lot of the people today who have skin cancer admit that when they were younger they would bathe in the sun for long periods of time. Getting a tan is especially popular with teenagers and young adults. Creighton says, “Even with warnings about sun exposure, teens are soaking up rays to get the perfect tan.” Alan Geller, APHA member, stated, “The notion of a tan is really a driving behavior, it’s worth getting burned to get a tan.” in the Nation’s Health article. A tan may look great now, but 0 years from now the skin will become lined and leathery. People were more careful of the sun in the past. In the 10’s a person’s risk of getting malignant melanoma was 1 out of 1, 500. The chance of getting malignant melanoma now is 1 out of 18 people. One out of seven people in the United States will develop some form of skin cancer.

Regular use of sunscreen during the first 18 years will reduce the risk of skin cancer by 78%. Clothes, hats, and sunglasses protect the skin from the sun. Sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or higher is recommended. It is also a good idea to limit sun exposure during the peak hours between 10-11 a.m.


Works Cited

Creighton, Jessica. “Teens ignoring health risks of obtaining the “perfect tan.” Nation’s Health. Aug 2004.

Hope, Jenny. “Warning.” Daily Mail. 11 Apr 2001

Lamberg, Lynne. Skin Disorders. New York. Chelsea House Publishers.

Lewis, Carol. “Sunning for Science.” FDAConsumer. Nov/Dec 2006.

Pemble, Louise. “On the Table-Melanoma.” The Australian.

Simons, Paul. “Weather Eye.” The Times. 1 March 2000


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Living Room

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Upon entering the twenty-five year old, ranch style house, you can’t help but notice the light smell of warm, fresh banana, nut bread lingering in the cool breezy air. The viewer’s eyes are immediately drawn to the large brick fireplace. The white brick face of the fireplace has somewhat yellowed with age, and the mortar has turned a smoky grey color. The glass covering the mouth of the fireplace offers a view of extremely large oak logs we used to light around a delicious cup of hot cocoa, which are now waiting to be relit. On the right side of the hearth, sits a eucalyptus arrangement. The mauve, teal, and rust colored eucalyptus sprigs are arranged in a bed of pearl marbles inside the frosted glass vase. Along with the smell of banana nut bread, the eucalyptus radiates a strong scent that permeates the room and heightens the senses. On the left side of the hearth, stand the brass fireplace utensils. Above the mantel hangs a piece of our child hood, a large oil painting my grandmother had hand painted. The painting represents the endless summer nights at my grandparents as we lay in out pajamas watching her paint her master piece. The original painting entices the eyes with its pastel colored flowers arranged in a simple vase.

To the left of the painting, the viewer’s focus is drawn to the built-in oak stained bookshelves. Among the dusty, old books are mementos of a family’s life. On one of the shelves are the schools photos of my brother, sister and I, which are memories we care not to share, but that are to “precious” to hide. These photos are complimented by an adjacent shelf, which contains pictures of the vigorous sporting events my brother and I participate in. Amid these portraits are several small oil paintings. On numerous other shelves, there are ten wooden ducks. The ducks differ in size and are each individually named after the overwhelmingly long fishing trips with my father. The ducks are different in texture, but are all uniquely hand carved. As if guarding the wooden ducks an ivory statue of St. Francis stands regally. Beside the statue is a ceramic angel holding a tiny rabbit. Beneath the bookshelves are built-in cabinets and drawers. One of the cabinets houses a twenty year old, twenty-six inch console television. In the drawers there are numerous photographs of babies, animals, and other family occasions.

Beside the bookshelves stands a family heirloom. It is a walnut stained, oak grandfather clock. The clock contains three brass weights that hang above a swinging pendulum. The face of the clock is silver and is framed by ornate gold leaflets. The time is indicated by golden plated numerals, which are underneath a calendar that shows the position of the moon. Sitting opposite of the bookshelves are two dusty blue colored couches, which are arranged in an “L” shape. Printed on the blue background are beige and mauve colored flowers, which contain sea foam green stems and pea green leaves. On each couch sits four square pillows that contain the same floral pattern.


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Between the two couches is an end table. The end table is composed of an oak top and seven glass windows. Accenting the table is a shiny brass lamp with an eggshell-colored, accordion pleated shade. In front of the two couches is a coffee table. The table has four stout wooden legs, which connect a wooden framed glass top, and a solid wooden bottom.

Throughout the room, smoky grey, plush carpet covers the floor. This warm inviting family room has many eye catching accents and generates a very relaxing atmosphere, which is why this is my favorite place to be.




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Saturday, January 28, 2012

The Goals of the Business

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Financial - The business is aiming to achieve through improved profits, long-term market growth and being a market leader. Such as “Expanding the business into a larger and more efficient working environment” and “Also expanding through market growth into more districts”.

Social - Aiming to create an excellent public image through good service, through sponsorship, providing educational opportunities and also providing personal growth and achievement.

Personal - Would like to extend the business through expanding in a short period of time, a substantial amount of profit received from the selling outputs. There are many stakeholders involved in this business, these include customers/clients, employees, creditors, and shareholders. They all play an important part towards the future state of the environment.Responsibilities that the business has to internal and external stakeholders

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Internal responsibilities

Within the business there is a responsibility to:

• enable owners or shareholders to pursue the attainment of their goals

• provide employees with safe and healthy workplaces, a satisfying job and conditions which will promote successful working lives

• pay conditions must be correctly

• give management and other staff opportunities to archive satisfying and fulfilling careers.

• Employees having the right amount of lunch breaks


External responsibilities

Outside of the actual operations of the business, the business has a responsibility to:

• Ensure that all debts to creditors are paid on time

• Provide quality goods and services to customers. After sales service, prompt and efficient maintenance are also important

• obey all government rules and regulations

• have a positive impact on the environment

• minimize waste and dispose of waste properly

• be socially responsible by not only providing employment and income, but also by taking additional measures to improve welfare.




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Friday, January 27, 2012

Effects of crossing legs on Blood Pressure Measurement

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The article Effects of crossing legs on Blood Pressure Measurement by Keele-Smith & Price-Daniel (2001) is summarised and critically examined in terms of usefulness of the findings to inform my nursing practice in New Zealand. The critical framework used was Criteria for evaluating experimental and quasi-experimental designs from Schneider, Elloit, Lo Bondo-Wood & Waber.

The study was undertaken by Rebecca Keele-Smith, New Mexico Sate University and Le Cilla Price-Daniel MAJ Army nurse corps at two senior citizen centres, New Mexico City.

The purpose of the study was to determine if blood pressure measurement is affected by the leg crossed at the knee as compared with feet flat on the floor. (Keele-Smith, & Price-Daniel, 2001).

The study design was an experimental design. A non-directional hypothesis rather than a research question was used in this study. The hypothesis stated that participants’ blood pressure measurement would be higher with legs crossed rather than uncrossed. The hypothesis was stated in research form and is testable.


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Keele-Smith, & Price-Daniel used convinced sampling as a method. The sample was obtained Participants for the study were senior citizens attending activities at two local senior citizen centres in New Mexico study. They were recruited by word of mouth and information flyers at local senior centres. Participants could be normotensive or hypertensive. Participants were excluded if they were taking antihypertensives and had not taken there medication the day of the data collection or have had the diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease, had lower leg amputations or surgery within the past weeks. One hundred and ten seniors participated in the study. Seven participants were excluded; 6 participants were excluded because they had not taken their blood pressure medication on the day of measurement and 1 participant had a seizure during data collection.

Keele-Smith, & Price-Daniel stated that power analysis was conducted to determine the appropriate sample size needed to achieve an adequate level of power. The minimum sample size to achieve this was 8, and the study had 10 participants available for data study, thus the results were not due to chance but a real effect.

The researcher did consider the ethical principles of anonymity and confidentiality. The researchers stated that they used a coding system of numbers and they used no participant-identifying information on any data collection instruments. Keele-Smith, & Price-Daniel stated that the participants were informed that the study was voluntary and that they could with draw from the study at anytime. The researchers obtained written informed consent from each participant. Ethical approve to conduct the study was obtained through the Human Subjects Committee at New Mexico state university. The researcher

Random assignment was used to determine which protocols participants received during data collection. The participants, without looking, selected a marble from a basket containing 50 white and 50 turquoise marbles. They were then assigned to either the white-marble protocol or turquoise marble protocol depending on their selection of marbles. After the participants completed a consent form and a demographic form they were taken to a quite room depending on the colour of marble selected. The turquoise marble protocol had participants sitting with feet flat on the floor relaxing for minutes. Blood pressure was measured at the end of the minute period. Participants were then asked to cross one leg over the knee and hold this position for three minutes. Blood pressure measurement was then measured at the end of this three-minute period. The white marble protocol was the reverse of the turquoise-marble protocol. The researcher stated that the purpose of this reverse ordering for part of the sample was to reduce the possibility of ordering effects that could skew the results.

For data analysis the data was grouped into two catergoies

Descriptive statistics were used

The reported statistics are appropriate for the research question, aims and level of measurement; the sample size is large enough to prevent one score having a large effect on outcome.

The results indicated that blood pressure was significantly higher when legs were crossed versus uncrossed. This was found for both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic pressure changed by 5.mmHg. from 17. to 1.4, whereas dialostic pressure changed by 1.7, from 7.54 to 75.5. an comparison of blood pressure measurement between those. There was no significant differences between those who had their blood pressure measured first with their legs crossed versus uncrossed or between those with or without hypertension. These results indicate that blood pressure readings may be artificially high if measured while an individual has a leg crossed.

In the discussion section of the study the researchers did state that even though the study was statistically significant, clinical significance may be limited, as systolic pressure changed only by 5.mmHg and diastolic changed by only .7mm.Hg. However they went onto state that, if a person’s blood pressure measurement is already on the higher end of the normal, even this small amount could effect the clients resulting treatment. The final conclusions drawn from the study by the researchers suggest that instructing patients to keep feet flat on the floor during blood pressure measurement is an important nursing intervention that can contribute to the accurate measurement, interruption and treatment of a patients health condition.


The researchers

The researchers stated that to improve the strength of the design, random assignment was use to determine which protocol participants received during data collection. Furthermore, training sessions were held for data collectors to ensure consistency of blood measurement technique. All data collectors followed written protocols that had been pilot tested at an earlier time. The researchers stated that they recognised prior to undertaking the study that having legs crossed for inconsistent periods before obtaining measurements could have confounded results, thus a three-minute period was used as described in method.

The only limitation of the study noted by the researchers was the difficulty in keeping the seniors quite during the data collection

The design of the study is appropriate, however, the use of a small aging sample does limit application to general nursing practice. Thus I would not use this article to inform my nursing practice in New Zealand. This study should be repeated using the researchers suggestions; this includes replication of the study using larger samples and among more diverse populations and settings.




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Thursday, January 26, 2012

Lord of The Rings - The One Ring

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The creation of the One Ring or the Ring of Sauron goes back to the years following the fall of Morgoth. At this time, Sauron established his desire to bring the Elves, and indeed all the people of Middle-Earth, under his control. In order to bring the Elves under his control, Sauron persuaded them that his intentions were good, and that he wanted Middle-Earth to return from the darkness it was in. Eventually the elves sided with Sauron, and created the Rings of Power under his guidance. Following the creation of these rings, Sauron created the One Ring in secret, so that he would be able to control the other rings and consequently control the Elves. The creation of the Ring, and the essence of its power is revealed in the following passage, and their power was bound up with it, to be subject wholly to it and to last only as long as it too should last. And much of the strength and will of Sauron passed into that One Ring; for the power of the Elven Rings was very great, and that which should govern them must be a thing of surpassing potency; and Sauron forged it in the Mountain of Fire in the Land of Shadow. And while he wore the One Ring he could perceive all the things that were done by means of the lesser rings, and he could see and govern the very thoughts of those that wore them. (from The Silmarillion, Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age)

The power of the One is recognized by the Elves as soon as Sauron puts the Ring on his finger. They realize that he can control their thoughts, and they decide to remove their rings and not use them. The history of the ring, then, follows that the Elves and Sauron became bitter enemies, and the One ring remained in Sauron’s possession until it was taken by Isildur after Sauron’s defeat, and was then lost in the river for many years.

Eventually, it was found by Deagol, who was in turn murdered by his brother Smeagol. Smeagol is the same person as the pitiful Gollum, who retained the ring until it was taken by Bilbo Baggins. From here, it logically follows that it was given to Frodo Baggins by Bilbo, under the guidance of Gandalf the Grey, and so we reach the beginning of LotR.

The nature of the One Ring can be explained in three distinct ways.
First as a personification of Sauron’s power. Second as a symbol of evil in general. And finally, as an inanimate object with a mind of its own, with the ability to work away from its creator as well as return to its creator of its own accord.. The next section of this essay will examine these three explanations. Indeed, as the Ring’s creator and original owner, Sauron had placed a great amount of his own power into the ring for the purpose of controlling the other rings. Because of this, the Ring is effectively an extension of Sauron’s might. The loss of the Ring does not destroy Sauron, as would the destruction of it. Rather, his power is simply spread around, and his influence affects whomever should have possession of the Ring at any time. Should Sauron recover the ring again, however, his power will be greater than ever, as is explained in Book one of LotR. If he recovers it, then he will command them all again, wherever they be, even the Three, and all that has been wrought with them will be laid bare, and he will be stronger than ever.(1 LotR I, The Shadow of the Past) Even without the ring, then, Saurons power was immense. Throughout LotR, however, there are only hints of this power. Sauron’s power lies in control and dominion, and the deprivation of free will. One example of Sauron’s power reflected in LotR is in Gollum, whose pitiful condition is the result of Sauron’s domination over him as the bearer of the One Ring. The Ring presented as a symbol of evil is possibly the most important idea represented in the trilogy. In Tolkien’s world, evil is the antithesis of creativity, and is dependent on destruction and ruin for its basis. Conversely, goodness is associated with the beauty of creation as well as the preservation of anything that is created. The symbolic nature of these two ideologies is represented in the Elven Rings, which symbolize goodness, and the One Ring, which is wholly evil. A main theme of LotR, then, is the struggle between good will and evil. Another theme that is in accordance with this struggle is the theory that while goodness can create and be beneficial, evil can only serve to pervert and destroy. Therefore, evil cannot exist unless there is something that can be perverted and destroyed. This idea is the main essence of Sauron’s evil nature, and thus the One Ring is the essence of evil as well, as it is the personification of Sauron. In the Letters of Tolkien, it is said that, Essentially the primary symbolism of the Ring is as the will to mere power, seeking to make itself objective by physical force and mechanism, and so also inevitably by lies. This is to say that the purpose of the Ring is to destroy, through deceit and corruption, anything good in the world. Another way to show the symbolic nature of the ring is to say that it represents the omnipresence of evil. Its very existence, because it contains the evil will of its creator, has the power to tempt, corrupt, and in doing so destroy.

The next way in which the nature of the Ring can be examined is in the way it has seemingly animate abilities as an inanimate object, namely the ability to work away from and return to its creator. In order to understand this, one must realize that if the Ring is evil in itself, which has been explained earlier, then it must also have the ability to work evil. It cannot necessarily create evil ideas on its own, but instead it can take advantage of any opportunity which presents itself to the Ring. Specifically, whenever Frodo is tempted to use or actually uses the Ring, the Ring has a chance to work corruption on him, even in the absence of the creator. In this way, the Ring is advantageous, and the stronger the presence of evil, the easier it is for the Ring to work on the bearer. For example, on Weathertop, the presence of the Witch-king is a tremendous evil, and the Ring takes advantage of this, convincing Frodo to use it in order to escape. Although Frodo is not permanently corrupted at this point, the Ring is slowly eating away at him, and its power over him grows each time he uses it. This leads inexorably to the final failure of Frodo, that being at the Cracks of Doom, when he decides that the Ring is his by right. At this point, the Ring has won, and it is only by chance that it is successfully destroyed. It can be said that it is either the culmination of the Ring’s corruption of Frodo that resulted in its victory or else it is that the Ring finally had enough outward evil presence to aid it in conquering the bearer, that presence being Mordor itself, the heart of evil.

The idea that the Ring has a mind of its own is further explained in the way it is never lost or forgotten for long. As Gandalf explains in Fellowship, A Ring of Power looks after itself, Frodo. It may slip off treacherously, but its keeper never abandons it. (LotR 1, The Shadow of the Past) This statement shows how the Ring will protect itself from destruction if at all possible. The further explanation, that, It was not Gollum…but the Ring itself that decided things. The Ring left him. (LotR 1, The Shadow of the Past) again shows how the Ring always strives to return to its creator. This goes to further the notion that Sauron has control over the Ring even when it is not in his possession. His power is not vanquished by the absence of the Ring, simply reduced and spread out. The Ring will always be found, and it will always return to its creator so that its evil nature can be whole.

The temptation of Frodo throughout LotR is another important aspect of the power of the One Ring. Unless one first understands what is involved in a struggle between Good and Evil, it is incomplete to simply say that such a struggle exists. Also, in order to examine the nature of temptation, one must also discuss the idea of free will. If the essence of Evil is control and domination, which has been explained earlier, and the essence of goodness is freedom and creativity, then it seems as though temptation is based on evil. The Ring does tempt Frodo, in an effort to subvert him and conquer his ability to choose whether or not to wear the Ring, but it is not the nature of goodness to prevent this from happening, because to do so it would be to destroy Free Will in a different fashion with the same result. From Frodos point of view, the entire trilogy is an examination of choice and free will. When Frodo chooses to take the Road to the Fire at the Council of Elrond, he is not only choosing to take a dangerous path, but he is also choosing to continue to allow himself to be presented with the temptations that are presented by the Ring. There is a very important relationship that concerns both temptation as well as the general effect of the Ring on mortals. This is the conflict between Frodo and Boromir. Their confrontation is an example of the choice issue, and the temptation and fall of Boromir is the first of two critical choices that are made at this point. Boromir is overwhelmed by the Ring’s power, and it eventually results in his madness. The Ring preys upon Boromir’s desire for the power of Command, and it corrupts him through this weakness. In the end, Boromir is rescued only by his death, which, coupled with his last-breath admission of his attempt to retrieve the Ring, give a bittersweet sense of redemption. Aragorn’s words following Boromir’s death, In Minas Tirith they endure the East Wind, but they do not ask it for tidings. But now Boromir has taken his road, and we must make haste to choose our own.(LotR III, 1 The Departure of Boromir) sum up the fall of Boromir, and show what the future must hold for the rest of them. The second choice made at this point concerns Frodo’s choice to use the Ring in order to escape from Boromir. At this time, the power of the Ring nearly conquers Frodo, and it is only the last-minute intervention of Gandalf which saves Frodo. The enhanced powers of perception that Frodo has when he wears the Ring is the essence of temptation put forth by the evil forces at work. Frodo is obviously tempted to use the Ring for his own prosperity, for the power of perception is very great with the Ring. At this time, he is unable to see the danger of the Ring that is ever-growing. This section of the trilogy is one of the most important of all, and it is a turning point in both the reader’s understanding of the Ring as well as Frodo’s. There is an interesting parallel here, concerning an issue which will be expanded on at a later point, a parallel between Frodo’s individual struggle with temptation on the summit and Christ’s temptation on the summit. Not necessarily to say that Frodo Baggins is a Christ-figure, but rather to suggest that the issue of free will is an individual matter seems relevant here. The effect of the Ring on mortals is not limited to temptation and corruption. In addition to these, the Ring works in different ways, exploiting the weaknesses and fears of each individual who encounters it in any way. Evidently, there are only three individuals who are not tempted by the Ring. Sauron is immune to the power of it, for it is the personification of his own evil nature which the Ring represents. Sam is only tempted by the Ring once, before the Tower of Cirith Ungol, and he defeats the temptation. This is most likely because of his undying loyalty to Frodo and his intentions. He would never think to upstage Frodo by allowing the Ring to become an issue for him. The third individual who is immune to the temptation of the Ring is Tom Bombadil, who is possibly the strongest reference to a Christ-figure in the trilogy. He is the Master of Wood, water, and hill (Elwood) according to Old Man Willow and other inhabitants of nature. It is his nature not to be influenced by the evil forces of the Ring. He knows his bounds, and will never go beyond them. It is this which prevents him from becoming corrupted by the Ring. He has set bounds for himself, and is completely content with them. This lack of ambition is something not present in any other character in the story. Any other character, including Gollum, Frodo, Boromir, and even Gandalf, possesses an innate sense of ambition which allows for the evil of the Ring to work. The most obvious example of the Ring’s effect on a mortal is obviously Gollum. Gollum is the result of nearly complete corruption by the Ring, and his situation demonstrates to us the way that the Ring’s evil works. He is evasive, cunning. He lies and deceives everyone, including himself. He has a peculiar relationship with the Ring, hating and loving it at the same time. In effect, Gollum represents what Frodo could have become. Also, he represents in an exaggerated fashion what becomes of Frodo whenever he wears the Ring. Gollum’s mind and soul are shattered by his obsession for the Ring, and its retrieval is his only and ultimate goal. This advanced stage of corruption is another example of the parasitic, evil nature which the Ring represents. The next section of this essay deals with the destruction of the Ring, including the failure of Frodo and the irony of Gollum’s intervention. At the last moment, in the heart of Sauron’s kingdom, Frodo wavers in his quest, and gives in to the temptation completely. The Ring has complete control over Frodo for only an instant before the intervention of Gollum, whose death is redeemed only by the ultimate completion of his quest, that to retrieve the Ring. His intervention seems to prevent an ultimate catastrophe, but one must realize that Gollum would’ve attempted to retrieve the Ring from Frodo whether or not Frodo had accepted it as his own. Therefore, it is irrelevant to wonder what would have happened if Frodo had not failed in his individual quest. At first, it seems as though this ending to such a complicated ordeal is too incomplete, leaving too much to chance. However, it is this ending which further develops the concept of evil explained earlier. Evil is a destructive force, and it carries within it the formula for its own destruction. Therefore, because the Ring is the embodiment of Evil, it had the potential for self-destruction. This idea, of the self-destructive nature of Evil, is the most important issue concerning the destruction of the Ring. There is a major flaw in the mind of Sauron, and in turn the mind of Evil, which is that Sauron never considered the possibility that anyone would desire to destroy the Ring. Similarly, the Ring itself, in its desire to return to its master Sauron, never considered the possibility that the level of corruption that it had performed against Gollum would turn against it. Indeed, Gollum was so obsessed with the Ring that when he finally gets it back, he is so ecstatic that he missteps. In both cases, Evil has deceived itself, which in turn has brought about its destruction. The Ring, the symbol of Evil and evil power, has been defeated, not by the will of goodness, but rather by its own doing.

The next section of this essay will make comparisons between LotR and Norse Mythology, specifically the myths of the Rhinegold Ring and Otter’s Ransom. Also, comparisons will be made between LotR and Christianity, specifically the possible presence of one or more Christ-figures in the trilogy. Through these comparisons, a greater understanding of the universality of the Ring’s symbolic significance will be reached. The Myth of Otter’s Ransom is a retelling of a myth contained in the Volsunga Saga of Norse Mythology. In this account, three gods, Loki, Odin, and Honir, are in a predicament over the accidental killing of Otter, brother of the giants Fafnir and Regin. The gods are trapped by the brothers, and held to avenge Otter’s death. In order to save them, Odin makes an offer to repay the family for the death. The ransom price the family is a horde of red gold, enough to entirely cover the body of Otter. In order to accomplish this, Loki leaves while Odin and Honir remain. Loki borrows a net from another god, and proceeds to capture the dwarf Andvari from the bottom of a pool inside a cavern. Loki demands that Andvari give him his horde of gold that he controls within the pool. Andvari reluctantly agrees, and gives Loki the gold. After this, Loki notices a ring on Andvari’s finger, and demands it as well. A conflict emerges from this demand, and eventually Loki gets the ring, along with Andvari’s curse upon it and the gold. Loki returns, and they give the gold to the family and cover Otter’s body with it. As they leave, they tell the family of the curse. The important thing to realize about this story is that the ring is actually the Rhinegold Ring of Norse Mythology. The bearer of this Ring is the one who controls the massive horde of Rhinegold. A case can be made for the horde as a symbol of power, in which case there is direct relevance to the One Ring in LotR. Whoever bears the ring has power, the power to command. This possibility in itself has the power to corrupt those who desire possession of the ring. The power of the ring is shown more clearly than in the first account. After the father of Otter, Hraithmar, puts on the ring, he is overcome by his desire for the gold. As soon as he comes upon the pile covering Otter’s body, he is drawn to it. The longer Hraithmar gazed at the gold, the hotter its light seemed to burn in his body, shaking him with a sudden fear of desire. (Grundy) In a shocking similarity to LotR, the Ring, once used, has a tremendous power to corrupt and overpower.

These are two examples of the many parallels that exist between Tolkien’s fantasy and that of Norse Myth. The possibility of a Christ-figure in LotR is a difficult issue for several reasons. First, Tolkien himself denied any such allegorical meaning behind the trilogy and in fact denied nearly any allegorical meaning at all in his works. Also, it seems as though many of the characters bear some similarity to Christ at times, but none are completely representative of Him. There is almost always some area in which the character in LotR is lacking with respect to his Christ-like status. For example, The character of Tom Bombadil, discussed earlier with respect to the Ring’s power, seems to be extremely Christ-like in that he is considered by those who know him to be, The Master of wood, water, and hill. (Grundy) Also, he is truly the master of himself, and he knows his limitations as a man. Like all men, he is limited; like Christ, he limits himself. At this point, it would seem that Tom is a good representation of Christ. However, there are two distinct differences that separate Christ from Tom. The first is the fact that Tom knows of the miserable existence of the Barrow-Wights, yet is
 unmoved by the thought of them in misery. This lack of human compassion is a key difference between Tom and the Christ of faith. Also, while Tom has limited himself like Christ, he has never suffered to gain his humility. He has never been ambitious, and is not tempted. To create another set by symbolic reference to the One Ring, Tom would never feel the temptation for the Ring, in the same way he would never be tempted by a source of power such as the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden. This is an aspect of Tom that would suggest that he is less human than he would appear to be. Perhaps he is a joyful savior rather than the type of savior that the faith Christ was portrayed to have been. Tom is one example of a Christ-figure in the trilogy. Others include Gandalf, whose remarkable return to life after the battle with the Balrog could be symbolic of Christ’s resurrection. Also, Gandalf’s ability to be tempted yet resist temptation, his ordeal after his resurrection in which his friends did not at first recognize him, and his transformation from Gandalf the Grey to Gandalf the White are all areas in which parallels can be drawn to Christ. The only problem with the theory of Gandalf is that he is ultimately unable to save Middle-Earth. Although he guides Frodo in his mission, he can hardly receive credit when the mission fails. He is not strong enough to save middle-earth, and this is because he was too strong in his successful attempt to resist the temptation of the Ring. In order to summarize the essence of this study on the symbolism of the One Ring, it can be said that the Ring itself can be explained separately from an explanation of the Evil nature of the Ring. The Ring itself is the reality of Evil in the physical world. In every way, it is the nature of evil which must be either accepted or rejected outright. Its mere presence is a personification of the opportunity for people to have and execute free will and make morally correct or incorrect decisions. Also, the ring is a symbol of power, evil power. It is the part of nature that continually strives to destroy a person’s ability to exercise free will. The exercise of Evil, and in essence the power of the Ring, is the exact opposite of freedom. As for the nature of evil, it has been shown that no good can possibly come from evil means, but evil results can be averted if one can acquire the evil object while resisting the evil nature of it. Also, the Ring is both real and symbolic. While the physical nature of the Ring is behavioral, and can be physically observed, the essence or power of the Ring is also a concept, a concept which opposes morality.



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Creative and Practical Arts

Faculty of Education

Assignment 1

Unit of work and five lesson plans

Unit Name A picture a thousand words.

Rationale/Unit Description

The unit A picture a thousand words will explore pictures that tell a story. Each lesson will start with the introduction of stimuli. Then the students and teacher will examine these stimuli. The class will then engage in making their own art in the light of what they have seen, heard and discovered out of themselves. Finally the class will review their progress with the current task and assess if there is anything they need to finish for homework.

Stimuli will be either visual, verbal, or visual/verbal (explored below). The stimuli will stress the link between pictures and words. The verbal element will basically consist of descriptive language some from their own conversations or wider experience, some from the teacher and some read to or by them from fiction books, non-fiction books and other print media. The visual element will be made up of plates from art books, illustrations, cartoons, design drawings such as house-plans, photographs, sculpture and stills from films, and TV. Visual/verbal stimuli will come from plays, opera, television or movies shown in class or ones they have already seen.

The students and teacher will examine these stimuli in relation to the speaking quality of the visual and the pictorial quality of the verbal. There is an important relationship here in art that strives for realistic representation. This link is even stronger in design drawings, plans, cartoons, the art of social comment and, of course, visual/verbal art-forms that often desert realism in favour of more concise or eloquent visual expression.

Having examined the stimuli for the day, students will attempt making their own representations of some of the concepts covered, focusing on the speaking qualities of their own representations. These shall form a book or folder of illustrations, cartoons, sketches, paintings and drawings in various media, interspersed with notes, writing and captions based on the examination stage and relevant to the specific picture the child has done. Three dimensional works will also be attempted under the same guiding principals.


The review of own and peers work will focus on the relative difficulty of the task being attempted. Children who are ‘not good at drawing’ are often disappointed with the results of their work because they have attempted too much. A more successful student may simply have exaggerated the important points while the ‘failure’ has been an attempt at greater realism, and simply needs more time and patience, or, possibly, more familiarity with the medium.

Aims

This unit aims to awake a concept of spatial awareness and, out of that, an understanding of the speaking quality, particularly of representational, but also of non-representational art. To awake an appreciation of the innate value of all human beings, regardless of race, religion, age, sexuality or disability through a gentle treatment of each child’s contribution to the class. Demonstrating the value of focus, the joy of hard work that has some meaning to one and how it helps one to realise one’s potential.


OUTCOMES INDICATORS

MAKING

VAS.1 Investigates subject matter in an attempt to represent likenesses of things in the world.

VAS.1 Makes artworks for different audiences, assembling materials in a variety of ways.


APPRECIATING

VAS. Acknowledges that audiences respond in different ways to artworks and that there are different opinions about the value of artworks.

VAS.4 Communicates about the ways in which subject matter is represented in artworks.

• Closely observes people, animals and other objects in the world and captures the story (eg character, mood, movement) behind the actual spectacle using various techniques (such as proportion, perspective, composition, foreshortening, contrast, colour, contour, plane).

• Uses the exaggeration of caricature, cartoon, surreal and abstract art forms as well as more realistic depiction to make their art speak.

• Explores the stories as they and others perceive them behind real situations and their own and others’ art in the areas of the community, the global environment, places and spaces, peoples, objects and fantasies.

• Explores and becomes familiar with many forms (media) wet on wet watercolour, wax crayon, pastel, pencil (colour and graphite), charcoal and combinations of the above; clay, plaster, wire, wire mesh, and modelling wax. Notes how some media might realise in art certain concepts more effectively than other media. Looks an the role of colour, line, shading, contrast, brightness, texture, shape; and style (i.e. realism, cartoon, caricature, abstract art) in making speaking pictures and sculpture.

• Talks about the story in their works. Eg. Is it ok if the audience gets a different story?

• Explores ways they might get a particular message across to their audience.

• Talks and writes about the artworks/reproductions they have seen. Discusses the way they understand them and the different ways they might be interpreted by others.

• Recognises the different motivating forces behind artworks eg self-expression, fascination with media, beliefs, beauty, decoration, social-critique.

• Explore the concept that artists may have different intentions in their art-making than is later perceived by audiences through mystery artworks inventing stories for unfamiliar artworks and later hearing about their making and what place or story lies behind them.

• Identifies and describes the properties of different forms, materials and techniques in artworks and comments on how these are employed in the representation of subject matter.

• Discusses the artist’s intention and/or the use of styles and techniques in selected works and considers the possible meanings of these works.

• Discuss how subject matter can sometimes become a theme that (throughout a given culture) is symbolic of something else; but that, at other times, a subject can mean different things in different works.

• Looks at works in a wide range of media from oil on canvass to chalk on pavement, from clay to concrete, from fresco to fibreglass.


Overview of Subject Matter

Stimuli Looking at examples and reproductions of art, depiction, visual data communication and listening to descriptive language drawn from Drama, Music, Art Theory, English, HSIE, PD/H/PE, Mathematics and Science & Technology lessons (and other relevant sources).

Examining Discussing and writing about their impressions of these stimuli, the techniques used to convey meaning, and how the vividness of their impressions relates to how effectively the artwork speaks to them.

Making Creating artworks in the light of the discussions, and with the examples of the various stimuli to aid their art making.

Review Looking over, discussing and writing about what they and the class have accomplished and comparing the works (I believe children of this age can manage this so long it is a comparison of qualities rather than a judgement on the value or execution of the works).


Links with other KLAs

Creative and Practical Arts. This visual art unit has links to the performing arts through the importance placed on the linking of visual and verbal. Links with music are less important, though a link could be forged the emotional quality of music can be wrestled into words, painted (Kandinsky) or vice versa (eg all song writing and Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition). The three elements can even be brought together. This is opera visual aesthetics twinned with verbal artistry (the dramatic arts) and music rolled into one!

Music can be linked effectively with this unit, but it is a side issue to the central push of the unit.

PD/H/PE. The body as a means of expression is of fundamental importance both to dance and the depiction of the figure in art. The body can be depicted in the act of performing any of the activities relevant to PD/H/PE. Books on personal development, health and physical education often contain illustrations that portray things or clarify concepts that language can not convey (eg the face of a famous sportsman in competition, an artist’s portrayal of a dissected body, an illustration of a bully and a victim).

Participation in art promotes growth in personal development, health and physical education. It provides a unique arena for self-expression and the release of pent-up emotions while helping to build the children’s confidence and self-concept. It hones fine motor-skills, requiring at times quite strenuous effort, and sharpens the children’s experience through all the senses (Module 1, p. ). In these ways mental and physical health are bolstered by this unit, yet health issues, such as the toxicity of art materials and other hazards of the vocation will also be discussed.

English. Many different text types will be used as stimuli. The differences will be explored through looking at how a picture book will be illustrated in a different way to a science journal or a BMX magazine. Texts, oral skills for recounting impressions, script used in bookwork and listening skills are all integral to the unit. Text is used to conjure up images, images to illicit a response in words, yet neither is able to replace the other or render the other redundant.

Mathematics. This KLA is less central to the theme. Design drawing, however does have a strong link with mathematics as it often shows measurements to aid the building of a house or the manufacture of an engine. Realism in art will be a focus, however. This form of art approaches the accuracy of design so that mathematical concepts (such as perspective and the proportional reduction in size of more distant objects) become important. Artists such as M. C. Escher have blurred the line between design and art.

HSIE. Cultural and geographical information is always imbedded in art. The artist’s ethnicity, culture, life-history, mood at the time the work was made, world events all influence, to a greater or lesser extent, his/her artwork and help to make up the ‘thousand words’. A completely blank canvas may seem easy to describe. For such a canvas to be considered art requires a lengthy explanation; one that covers the whole history of art, and deals with the difficult concepts of originality and the influence of current art practice.

Science and Technology. Technical drawings will be used in the stimuli for this unit, as will anatomical, wild-life and plant illustration, as examples of realism in art. The children will also produce work that falls loosely into these categories.


Teaching Strategies

This unit employs integrated teaching strategies, whilst taking care not to swamp the art/craft/design element of the lesson with the content from other KLAs. Each lesson is based loosely on a theme, as is the unit on a broader one. The elements approach will have some bearing on the lessons, but the technical use of the elements of art (eg line, shading) will only be mentioned in passing an aid to those ready for them, but no mandatory encumbrances to those who are not or are pursuing other goals. Students who seem to need an extra challenge, but are not responding to the general suggestions should be individually directed and encouraged. (Richardson, D. 1).

Command Style to begin the lessons where class practice is set, then the Limitation Method, where the students find their own approaches to impulse and response, evolving through guided Discovery, Progressive Problem Solving to Specific Skill Instruction, though already ‘limited’ to a specific game or exercise. This pattern will be followed for all the activities first setting the framework, then progressively narrowing exploration to hone in on an accurate impulse from and response to anger, gentleness, or whatever the student has selected to experiment with. Reciprocal style will be added to this framework in the group exercises.


Assumed Knowledge

This unit assumes that the students have satisfied the requirements of stage learners in the visual arts. It also assumes literacy to stage , numeracy to stage at least (though only a small amount of work will require this capacity) and knowledge and understanding of the following subject matter in the following fields, which will be used as stimuli for this unit. A level of familiarity with the visual arts (and subjects in general) is expected, but this unit caters for a broad range of students to participate at their own level, whilst pushing the boundaries of what they can do.


Student Assessment

• Samples of bookwork, i.e. painting, drawing and writing enclosed in a portfolio.

• Samples of D work.

• Appropriate attitude to art making as demonstration of what they have been learning through sharing the experience of the speaking quality of artworks with their classmates.

• Positive social interaction.

• Helpful oral contributions, evident of understanding of core unit concepts.

• Eagerness to engage in and appreciate art as an important mode of communication.

• Eagerness to engage in the unit as an important opportunity for many kinds of growth.


Stimuli from an integrated curriculum links with other KLAs. This unit has been drawn up with parallel lessons in mind. Much of the text, images, dialogue and activities that are used for stimuli, have been or are being covered in other lessons. Here are the links with the current lessons for class 6.

This unit must be altered in years when this material is not being covered.

Lesson/KLA Text (Excerpts from) Images Dialogue Activities

Art Theory
(previous)
(this lesson) The life/poetry of Michelangelo.

Text about particular artworks/artists previously covered. The artworks to which these texts relate and illustrations from the biography and other texts. Dialogue/ conjecture about these experiences. To illustrate and/or write about the positions of body used in the activities of creating and studying visual art, and scenes of the story both in the illustrations and the child’s imagination.


Text about works not covered previously

Drama. The fairytale 'The Fisherman and his Wife' by the brothers Grimm. Illustrations from the text. Class discussion about these and other experiences of drama. To illustrate and/or write about gestures used in the activities of rehearsal and performance, and the scene of the story in both the illustrations and the child’s imagination.

Music. The story of the life of Beethoven. Illustrations and photographs from the text. Class discussion about these experiences and the experience of music itself. To illustrate and/or write about the positions of body used in the activities of rehearsal and performance, and scenes of the story both in the illustrations and the child’s imagination.

English Stories. The Call of the Wild and White Fang by Jack London.

Books on dogs and the wilds of Canada. Illustrations and photographs from these books. Class discussion about these experiences. To illustrate and/or write about scenes of the story both in the illustrations and the child’s imagination.

HSIE. The Aeneid by Virgil. Texts on different lands, cultures, animals and natural phenomena. Illustrations from the texts. Class discussion about these experiences. To illustrate and/or write about scenes of the story both in the illustrations and the child’s imagination.

PD/H/PE PD/H/PE texts. Illustrations from these books. Class discussion about these experiences. To illustrate and/or write about scenes of the texts both in the illustrations and the child’s imagination.


Mathematics. Problems describing geometric figures. Illustrations from the resource text. Class discussion about these experiences. Depicting figures from their descriptions, including information (eg side lengths).


Describing shapes in words.

Science and Technology. Descriptions of objects for study or construction as seen in their S&T lessons. Technical drawings/ construction plans. Class discussion about these experiences. Creating construction plans from the objects’ descriptions, including information (eg side lengths).


Giving written descriptions of a given technical drawing.

Teacher Resources

• One teacher

• Helpers (optional)

• In-door and out-door areas


Resource Books/CDs/Videos/DVDs/Websites


Art Theory (this lesson and previous)

• Boardman, J., Greek Art. Thames and Hudson, London.

• Buonorroti, M. (Ryan, C. Tr.), Michelangelo, The Poems. Butler and Tanner Ltd., Frome.

• Dupain, M., Max Dupain’s Australia. Viking, Ringwood, Victoria.

• Escher, M. C. http//www.mcescher.com/

• Goldscheider, L., Michelangelo Paintings, sculpture, architecture. (6th edn.) Phaidon, London.

• Harden, M. Kandinsky Compositions. In Glyphus. http//www.glyphus.com/art/kandinsky/


Music

• Scott, M. M. Beethoven. Dent, London.

• Mussorgsky. Pictures at an exhibition. (Audio).


Drama

• Brothers Grimm The Fisherman and his Wife. In, Owens, L. Ed. (181), The complete Brothers Grimm fairy tales. Gramercy Books, NY.


English

• Burnett, F. H. (Howell, T. Illustrator), The secret garden. dilithium Press Ltd., New Jersey.

• Carroll, L. (Peake, M. Illustrator)., Alices adventures in Wonderland and Through the looking glass. Redwood Burns Ltd., Trowbridge, Wiltshire.

• London, Jack., White Fang. Butler & Tanner Ltd., Frome.

• London, Jack. (10/150/15), The Call of the Wild. Mr. William Heinemann/Methuen & Co., Ltd./Butler & Tanner Ltd., Frome.

• Movies Call of the Wild/White Fang

• Roughsey, D., The rainbow serpent. William Collins Publishers Pty. Ltd., Sydney.

• Animals and their young. Childerset, Blackburn North, Vic.

• Daziel, H. (n.d.1881) British Dogs Their varieties, history, characteristics, breeding, management and exhibition. The Bazaar Office, London.

• National Geographic, Vol., No. 4. HSIE

• Virgil. (Lewis, C. D. Tr.), The Aeneid. OUP, Oxford.

• Dillon, M & Garland, L., Ancient Greece, Social and historical documents from archaic times to the death of Socrates. Routledge, London.

• Australian Geographic

PD/H/PE

• Books on PD, the body, sportspeople for example, eg Iooss, W. (188), Sports People. H. N. Abrams, NY.


Mathematics

• Marchant, P., Unity in pattern. The Prince of Wales Institute of Architecture, London.

• Lawler, R., Sacred geometry, Philosophy and practice. Thames & Hudson, London.


Science and Technology

• Norwich, J. J., Great architecture of the world. Mitchell Beazley, London.

• Moataedi, A. Sustainable Architecture Low tech houses.

• National Geographic

• David Attenborough videos


Student Resources

Student-quality art materials

• Art-diaries

• Drawing paper (large and small)

• water-colour paper

• water-colour paints

• crayons

• pencils (colour and lead)

• pastels

• charcoal

• clay

• modelling wax

• plaster

• plaster-bandage

• wire

• wire mesh

• soap-stone

• carving tools


Student Resource Books/CDs/Videos/DVDs/Websites

• Harden, M. Kandinsky Compositions. In Glyphus. http//www.glyphus.com/art/kandinsky/

• Escher. http//www.mcescher.com/

• Heusinger, L., Michelangelo complete works, Special edition for the Vatican museums and galleries. Amilcare Pizzi, Milan.


Evaluation

• Was the unit successful?

• To what extent were the needs of all students catered for?

• To what extent did the students enjoy the unit?

• To what extent did the teaching/learning strategies and assessment approach allow students to work towards and demonstrate achievement of the relevant syllabus outcomes?



THE PHYSICAL LANGUAGE OF PEOPLE

One of five lessons the in unit, A PICTURE A THOUSAND WORDS

FORMS Drawing, painting TIME TAKEN 1 ½ hr LESSON 1/5

OBJECTIVE

Use observations, experiences and imagination as a source for creating images of people.

OUTCOMES

To demonstrate achievement students begin to

• Effectively depict people and other objects using diverse styles and forms.

• Capture hidden themes (eg character, mood, movement) using various techniques.

• Explore the stories written, visually & verbally.

• Discuss and write about possible perception differences re a given work by artist & audience.

• Explore the properties of media verbally and in writing, what effects they produced and why they may have been employed for given works.

• Discuss how subject matter can sometimes become a theme symbolic of something else in a given culture. RATIONALE

This lesson will look at the human figure as a portrayal of actions and intentions of people (eg. a woman squatting with her fingers under a rock is intending to lift that rock, unless she has just put it down), as well as their character, physical appearance, objects (props/wearables) and scene of the works. Thus, though the People is the focus here, Event, Objects, Places & Spaces, and Living Things are in the background of this lesson. We start with illustrated books because they are the first form of art that most of us are exposed to. This art form also has a particularly broad range of styles and levels of difficulty, allowing students fit comfortably into the lessons.


LANGUAGE

character

intention

(self-)portrait

life-drawing

sculpture

foreground

background

profile

realism

figurative

subject

object

 RESOURCES

Illustrations and relevant text from the story books The secret garden, The rainbow serpent, and Alice’s adventures in Wonderland and through the looking glass. Art diaries, drawing paper water-colour paper (large and small), water-colour paints, crayons, colour pencils, pastels. Art room fitted out with areas for drawing, painting and sculpture.


TEACHING NOTES

Provide a collection of images from the texts, magazines & artworks. Heighten students’ visual awareness by focusing on what has been achieved in a work, & how.


SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES

• The lesson should begin with the stimuli being presented to the children, namely illustrations and relating text from story-books. The teacher may present some specialist language now, and introduce some themes from the stimuli.

• Now a general discussion, drawn from the stimuli and from the children’s imagination and experience ensues, covering such topics as themes, media, techniques, places or objects of interest, the characters of the people depicted, their actions and intentions.

• This discussion process may be followed by brainstorming, or other processes of note taking, individually or in small groups.

• During the previous two activities, the children will be thinking about the media they think would be most effective in getting across the kind of message that they are aiming for, which, in most cases, will be something close to the examples given in the beginning of the class.

• In this introductory class, the whole class will watch as each form is introduced. The media used will be dimensional and colourful. Pure tonal and dimensional forms will not be employed this week, but next week, when some of this subject-matter will be reworked in dimensions.

• The children will now commence work in earnest in small groups on loose sheets, or in the books with which they have been provided. Suggest illustration from the text to start and developing from there. Some students may pose for the benefit of others for short periods (5 min. max.).

• Lastly, the children will review what they have done, and write their impressions about what they were happy with or less happy with about their works. Perhaps they also have a few more ideas about the genre, the media or the story which they could note down.


ASSESSMENT

Were the students able to

• Explain some different functions of portraiture?

• Generate ideas from the work of other artists, authors, the natural world and their own imagination?

• Appraise the success of their own and other’s attempts, looking at the strengths and weaknesses with a balanced attitude being neither dispirited by failures nor made arrogant or boastful by success, but directed and encouraged by the same, seeing both as opportunities for learning? EVALUATION

• Where there sufficient stimuli (text, visual, visual-verbal)?

• Was student access to the stimuli facilitated?

• Was there enough to stimulate discussion?

• Were there enough materials?

• Were enough/too-many different art forms covered in the lesson?

• Should forms be limited/helpers added?

• Were the students challenged by and interested in the activity?

• Was their knowledge of techniques, forms, art history and art theory increased?

• Was their confidence in their own art boosted?

• Did the lesson increase the value that the children placed on art in general?


LINKS WITH OTHER

Visual arts activities

Creative arts K-6 Units of Work 2000, p. 46-8 the many merits, meanings & motives of portraiture.


Creative arts K-6 Syllabus 2000, p. 5- posing for the class.


KLAs

HSIE

CSS. Time and Change

CUS. Identities

ENS.6 Relationships with Places


English

WS. Producing Text

WS.10 Skills and Strategies

WS. Context and Text

WS. Language Structures and Features


Science and technology

PP S.4 Physical Phenomena

ES S.6 Earth and its Surroundings

INV S.7 Investigating

DM S.8 Designing and Making


UT S. Using Technology

PD/H/PE

This lesson & unit looks at the human body, the movement of this body and the development of the self.


NOTES



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Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Nature of Organisations

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Organisations have to develop a strategic plan by creating a mission statement, establish their goals and business values, develop strategies to carry out their goals and values and then develop specific action plans to implement each of the strategies set. Finally these have to be communicated to all staff in order for them to be implemented.


MISSION STATEMENT

The mission statement outlines the direction that an organisation intends to follow and briefly summarises the reasoning and values that lie behind it.

The purpose of a mission statement is to communicate to all stakeholders inside and outwith an organisation what the company stands for and where it is headed.


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ORGANISATIONAL GOALS

In order to achieve the desired end results of a mission statement it is essential to set organisational goals. A goal is a future expectation. It is something that an organisation is striving to accomplish. To be effective goals have to be clearly communicated to and understood by all members of the organisation.

Primary goals are commonly held to be survival, profit and growth.

The secondary goal could be to improve the level of employee engagement by developing, retaining and recruiting the human talent necessary to achieve the desired results of their mission statement.


STRATEGIC GOALS

This represents a systematic attempt to influence the medium and long term future of an organisation by defining overall company objectives; by appraising those major factors within the company and the environment which will affect the achievement of the objectives; and by establishing sufficiently detailed action plans, which can be amended if necessary, and which will therefore help ensure that the overall objectives are achieved. In general the period of the plans will involve looking ahead between 5 to 10 years. Boards of directors and very senior specialist staff tend to carry out strategic planning.


Four Key Goals

Customer service excellence / Consumer Goals

In order to achieve customer service excellence an organisation must improve customer satisfaction ratings to 5% “Fully Satisfied” in each industry group.

Efficiency & effectiveness / Product & Service Goals

Segmented sales and service delivery

Review business processes to improve efficiency. Installation of new computer software, DBSi.

Employee engagement

Monthly divisional briefings

Training and development plans

More segment meetings

Less emails, more people contact

Ability to do the job

More resources

More team actions

Profitable growth

Revenue growth

Margin growth

Reducing costs

TACTICAL GOALS

This represents a lower level of planning and might be termed intermediate range planning. Management plans tend to be thought of as more concerned with such matters as, determining the structure of the organisation, establishing functional and departmental objectives in accordance with the overall policies laid down by the board of directors, deciding product sales mixes, formulating financial budgets, planning staff requirements. Functional directors and senior managers are usually responsible for developing tactical goals.

OPERATIONAL GOALS

This represents the lower level of planning and involves line managers down to supervisory and foreman level in the setting of specific tasks. Operational planning takes place within the context of management plans, the focus of operational plans is upon individual tasks, for example scheduling individual works orders through a production planning system.

An appraisal system where each year line managers and employees will meet on a one to one basis. It is during these meetings that each employee is given several objectives that they must meet in order to achieve their grade by the end of the year. It is by issuing these objectives to all employees that organisations will eventually achieve all of their organisational goals.

e.g. Myra Carragher’s objectives are:

Liase with customer service salesmen to produce top ten spend customers. Reports to be prepared on a monthly basis.

Liase with customer service salesmen to produce commodity reports, by customer. Reports to be prepared on a monthly basis.

Monitor call pick up in all departments to ensure customer satisfaction.


STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANISATION

A stakeholder is any individual or group which can affect or is affected by an organisation’s activities, whether they are a local community who want to know that a factory will not be releasing harmful pollutants, consumers who want product information or investors who wish to see a company prosper.

An organisation’s objectives should take into account the interests of the various stakeholders. However, different stakeholders will have different and often conflicting objectives eg.

New technology may reduce costs, increase profits but could result in redundancies

Higher wages will lead to lower profits

It is up to senior management to decide how much these conflicts can be worked out and dealt with. This will involve placing greater emphasis on the objectives of each stakeholder group. How this is done will be dependent on three main factors.

The ownership of the organisation

Eg. In government run organisations where government ministers can overrule the decisions of their management (eg. To prevent redundancies)

The relative bargaining power of the stakeholder groups

The more powerful each group is, the more its objectives will have to be taken into account in decision making.

The climate of public opinion

Eg. Public attitudes against cigarette smoking.

Below are a few examples of stakeholders and their influence within an organisation.


CUSTOMERS

Research has shown that satisfied customers are loyal customers and will continue to use a company for both service and the purchase of new products. It has also been found that a satisfied customer will tell 5 friends and colleagues and a dissatisfied customer will tell friends and colleagues. Good and bad news spreads and reputations are built on quality of service. Having a reputation for excellent service will bring and retain more customers for new and used sales, servicing and parts.

Organisations are judged by the quality of goods and services they provide and the cost of these goods and services. Organisations must make sure their goods and services are priced accordingly to enable them to be competitive in their marketplace. Excellent customer service is also something that organisations must concentrate on to ensure their existing customers continue to use their products and services.


GOVERNMENTS

Governments can do much to strengthen the business case for sustainable development. Weak governance can be a major problem, with issues such as unsuitable economic policies, corruption, general policy instability and inconsistent regulations. Overall, good governance, regulatory certainty and an appropriate mix of policy tools including clear and enforceable regulatory standards, economic instruments and voluntary initiative each have a key role to play in promoting the business case for sustainability.

Local government influence in a an organisation would include, Planning permission, rent-free facilities and financial assistance


EMPLOYEES

Employees are a key group within organsitions Individually, they can enhance sustainability within Finning by bringing their personal convictions and experiences to bear, and contributing to change and innovation.

An employee is interested in two things, primarily; they want to be paid for their contribution to the organisation.

Secondly, they are looking for job satisfaction. In order to achieve both of these the employee must provide a good service to the organisations customers. Thus enabling the organisation to achieve much needed customer service excellence.


MEDIA

Positive or adverse media attention on an organisations products or services can in some cases make or break an organisation.

Consumer programmes on TV like BBC’s Watchdog with a wider and more direct audience can also have a very powerful and positive impact, forcing organisations to change their tactics.

In the UK the adverse publicity the Millennium Dome received had an impact on projected sales figures.

Wharfedale who entered the DVD market received many awards from industry magazines resulting in an increased demand for this product and most importantly an increased awareness of the Wharfedale brand.


SUPPLIERS

In order for an organisation to be competitive in its market it has to offer its customers high quality goods and services and as low a cost as possible. Increase in raw material prices will have a knock on affect on the marketing mix strategy of an organisation. Prices may be forced up as a result. Closer supplier relationship is one way of ensuring competitive and quality products for an organisation.

Suppliers judge an organisation on their promptness of payments. If organisations were unreliable in paying their suppliers then they would stop supplying them with the goods and services that are needed to ensure their business is run smoothly and efficiently. This in turn would have an adverse affect on how an organisations customers viewed them, as being unreliable and unable to meet delivery dates and deadlines for products and services purchased.


COMPETITORS

Competitors are also a valuable stakeholder in any organisation. What benefit can an organisation offer which is better than their competitors? Can they sustain this differentiation over a period of time from their competitors? Competitor analysis and monitoring is crucial if an organisation is to maintain its position within the market.

Organisations must keep up to speed with what their competitors are doing if they let the competitors get ahead of them in production and marketing of construction equipment then they will lose customers to the competitors. The customers will want to have the most up to date technology and machine specifications.


ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT AN ORGANISATION

There are many variables that operate within an organisations environment that have a direct or indirect influence on their strategy. A successful organisation is one which understand and can anticipate and take advantage of changes within their environment.

The external environment of an organisation can be analysed by conducting a P.E.S.T. analysis. This is a simple analysis of an organisation, Political, Economical, Social and Technological environment.


POLITICAL

Political factors can have a direct impact on the way an organisation operates. Decisions made by government affect, our every day lives and can come in form of policy or legislation. The government’s introduction of a statuary minimum wage affects all organisations, as do consumer and health & safety laws and so on.

The political decision as to whether the UK signs up to the Single European Currency is again having an impact on UK organisations. Firms like Nissan who have recently invested in the UK have signaled that they will withdraw their business from the UK if the government fails to sign up.

The increase in petrol prices is having an impact on many organisations, including Finning (UK) Ltd. Over the past 5 years the average UK motorists annual tax bill has increased by £100, purely as a result of increasing fuel taxes. Manufacturing industry in Aberdeen and the North East of Scotland is struggling to cope with transport costs. Recent business failures are, according to some observers, clear indications of the damaging effect of punitive road taxes.


ECONOMIC

All organisations are affected by economic factors nationally and globally. Interest rate policy and fiscal policy will have to be set accordingly. Within the UK the climate of the economy dictates how the consumer may behave within society. Whether an economy boom, recession or recovery will also affect consumer confidence and behaviour.

An economy which is booming, is characterised by certain variables. Unemployment is low, job confidence is high, because of this confidence spending by consumers is also high. This has an impact on most organisations. Organisations have to be able to keep up with the increased demand if they are to increase turnover. An economy that is in a recession is characterised by high unemployment, and low confidence. Because of high unemployment spending is low, confidence about job security is also low. Organisations face a tough time, consumers will not spend because of low disposable income. Many organisations start cutting back on costs i.e. labour, introduce shorter weeks and cut back on advertising to save money.

Economies globally also have an impact on UK organisations, cheaper labour abroad affects the competitiveness of UK products nationally and globally. An increase in interest rates in the USA will affect the share price of UK stocks or adverse weather conditions in India may affect the price of tea.

In the early 1990’s when the UK economy was in a slump, and organisations were folding repeatedly, a security company called ‘Dreadlock Security’ to combat falling sales embarked on strategy of cutting back on labour costs, and doubling advertising expenditure. The organisation’s theory was that not their entire target segment was affected by the recession and they had to fight for the customers that still had the income to spend on security products.

Another example of economic impact on organisations is within the food industry. Things such as genetically modified foods, BSE and E Coli among a number of issues creating public controversies. As a result in media attention given to these problems, consumers have become very aware of perceived and potential dangers from breaches of food safety and security. These same consumers are highly dubious of claims by manufacturers and retailers that all is well and that appropriate safeguards have been implemented.


SOCIAL

Within society forces such as family, friends, media affect our attitude, interest and opinions. These forces shape who we are as people and the way we behave and what we ultimately purchase. For example within the UK peoples attitudes are changing towards their diet and health. As a result the UK is seeing an increase in the number of people joining fitness clubs and a massive growth for the demand of organic food. On the other end of the spectrum the UK is worried about the lack of exercise its youngsters are obtaining. These ‘fast food games console’ children are more likely to experience health problems in their future because of the lifestyle they are living now.

Population changes also have a direct impact on all organisations. Changes in the structure of a population affects the supply and demand of goods and services within an economy. With population changes comes the increased demand for more houses and business premises, This means that there is more of a demand for building & construction equipment from organisations and their competitors.

As society changes, as behaviours change organisations must be able to offer products and services that aim to complement and benefit peoples lifestyle and behaviour.

In Japan the fall in birth rate has a major impact on the sales of toys, as demand falls competition for the remaining market becomes very intense. If this trend continues it will have an impact on other sectors within the future affecting teen products, 0’s products and so on.


TECHNOLOGICAL

Changes in technology are changing the way organisations operate. The Internet is having a profound impact on the marketing mix strategy of organisations. Consumers can now shop 4 hours a day comfortably from their homes. The challenge these organisations face is to ensure that they can deliver their promises. Those organisations, which are slow to react, will fall at the first few hurdles. This technological revolution means a faster exchange of information beneficial for organisations as they can react quickly to changes within their operating environment.

There is renewed interest by many governments to encourage investment in research and development and develop technology that will give their country the competitive edge. The pace of technological change is so fast that in the computer industry the average life of a computer chip is approximately 6 months. In the name of progression technology will continue to evolve. Organisations that continue to ignore this will face extinction.


ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

Organisations are normally divided into sections or functions according to their products or service. Each section or function is of vital importance to an organisation as a whole, each contributing to the more efficient buying, selling or other purpose for which the organisation exists and all merging together as a team to achieve the organisations objectives.


SALES DEPARTMENT

The functions of the Sales Department includes

Forecasting and planning of Sales each quarter and for the year

Informing existing customers and potential customers of products and deals available. Ways of achieving this would be monthly mailshots to said customers, by salesmen visiting or telephoning or by using telesales staff to promote special offers.

Producing tenders, quotes and correspondence relating to sales of equipment

Arranging and ensuring delivery of machinery on time, and in perfect condition.


PARTS DEPARTMENT

The functions of the Parts Department within includes

To provide customers with a second to none parts service

Enable parts ordering through local branches by telephone, fax and walk-in

Ensure % parts availability within 4 hours

Arrange delivery and transportation of goods to customers

Provide customer satisfaction at all times


SERVICE / PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

The function of the Service Department includes

Arrange timetables and priorities of workload

Allocation of work to engineers

Designing and allocating tooling to engineers as required

Focus on quality and getting the job diagnosed & completed properly first time.

Keep the customer involved and informed of progress

Ensure all engineers are fully trained and work within the health & safety regulations

Compile estimates for work to be carried out

Checking work in progress and preparing reports as required

Raise invoices for completed jobs

Ensure customer satisfaction at all times

However, the company as a whole has various other departments. These consist of


HUMAN RESOURCES

The human resources department is responsible for

Development and implementation of HR strategies

Recruitment and selection of staff

Advertisements, Interviews

Handle discipline and grievance procedures

Develop and produce employee policies and procedures

Conduct annual wage negotiations

Develop training and development strategy for all employees

Processing of payroll

Updating employee records

Deal with health & safety issues


MARKETING / RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

The marketing department is not only responsible for marketing but it is also responsible for the research and development for the company. Their responsibilities are:

Have up to date intelligence on UK pricing and marketing activity

Communicate market changes, facilitating all sales opportunities whilst minimising competitive threats

Collate forecasts and sales performance information providing internal and external sales performance reports


Market Research

Organise equipment exhibitions and co-ordinate any customer or visitor events

Analyse and measurement of external market indicators, including performance against the industry and review of external market conditions

Analyse and measurement of sales against targets, lost sales / competitive data

Distribute and co-ordinate media information to the UK press

Organise customer visits to sites throughout the world.

Ensure all literature and mailshots are sent to customers


PURCHASING

The purchasing department is responsible for:

Procuring and making available all necessary materials, parts, machinery, stationery, vehicles, furniture equipment and services that the other functional areas of the organisation may need

The key requirement is that the right supplies of the right quality are acquired at the right time at the right price


FINANCE

The finance department is responsible for:

Raising, allocating and controlling the finances of the organisation in terms of specified return on investment, liquidity and solvency objectives

Providing the taxation authorities with required information

Determine the type and quantity of assets needed by the organisation

Determine the appropriate financial structure for the organisation in terms of share capital and debt capital

Determine how profits should be distributed


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Organisations The external environment

Management & Organisational Behaviour Laurie Mullins

www.securitymanagement.com

www.sustainability.com

www.learnmarketing.co.uk

www.scotiaweb.co.uk

www.ru.ac.za/academic/departments/management/about.htm



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