Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Stress Management

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Stress Management

Stress is a large part of every day life. Stress is has many definitions and there are many ways to manage stress. Most stress occurs at our busiest moments; school, work and home. Those are the most common places for stress to build. Nevertheless stress is unavoidable.

How do people know that they are stressed? The body responds to stress negatively. Many biological changes take place which include but are not limited to the following muscles tension, breathing heavily, dry mouth, sweats, tremors, dialating of pupils, response are not clear and there are many more (Wagner& Taylor). These changes can cause health problems if experienced to frequently. The body often becomes worn down making it more susceptible to becoming sick. Depending on how serious the stress, can determine the severity of its impact. For example, an individual may have a stressful week at work, and contract a virus, and end up with a common cold. Reducing stress may help the body recover faster, and may even keep a person healthier (Palmer).

The brain, nerves, and central nervous system interpret stress in our lives. Some factors effect the way people live and determine how stress is interpreted by their immune system, and what side affects stress will have. Nourishment is important because the immune system needs enough to weaken viruses (Palmer). Exercise is vital because it can relieve tension and keep the body healthy. However moderation is the key. Heavy exercise with no break can harm the body and wear it down with similar effects as stress. Personality is an important factor because that is the trait that helps individuals cope with stress. Easy going personalities are usually able to deal with stress better. People with this type of personality don’t let as much upset them and reason better when faced with stress. Hostile personalities usually become angry more quickly when faced with stress (Pope).

There are several side affects that occur from stress. Insomnia is another factor that stress may bring on. This occurs when a person is disrupted with thoughts and questions that drive them crazy and cause an inability to sleep. Chronic pain, headaches and backaches can be stress induced when under pressure. The muscles in these areas become tense under stress. Heart problems are the most common side affect. The pain felt in the chest is tension caused by an oxygen shortage to the heart. Heart attacks occur due to high blood pressure and can be fatal. Some behaviors that people take part in to reduce or cope with stress may also bring on heart problems. Stress can also hurt emotionally as with depression (Russel). Depression is another side affect from stress and that is a serious disorder to deal with. Pressures of life may really get to an individual making them feel down. Some of the symptoms discussed previously may be a sign of depression resulting from stress. Symptoms of depression may include diet, sleeping problems, headaches, body aches. Individuals who are depressed should seek counseling. (Palmer).

There are several different ways to manage stress. Not every way of managing stress is right for every person, because everyone’s reaction to stress is different. There is no right or wrong answer. One way is by practicing a simple breathing exercise. They calm down an individual and help them relax. There are many different techniques for breathing that can reduce stress. Stress counselors can recommend a certain technique for a each person. Relaxing and breathing work together. Relaxing may include doing something enjoyable, such as taking a walk, listening to music, picking up a hobby, reading or simply sitting or lying down in peace and quiet. Moderate exercising is another way of reducing stress, but it is important to remember not to over do it. Exercising doesn’t necessarily mean running the mile. It could simply mean stretching (Pope).

Biofeedback is also a way of managing stress. This involves monitoring specific areas of the body with an electrical device that is hooked up to an area of the body. The device makes a noise, and the pitch of the sound is determined by how relaxed the individual is (Palmer).

Eating well will help for managing stress. Healthy foods keep the immune system strong, as well as limiting the amount of caffeine that is consumed daily. Caffeine speeds up the heart and metabolic rate which can add stress. Quitting smoking is also an excellent alternative to reducing stress. Cigarette smoking has a similar effect that caffeine has on the body (Pope).

Individuals that are under stress should not turn to harmful stress relievers such as smoking, drinking or unhealthy eating. These unhelpful stress management strategies may seem like they are relieving stress, but instead they are hurting the body, which leads to more stress. Problems with work, relationships, school, and life in general should be dealt with accordingly. By using healthy strategies in moderation or seeking counseling a person can determine what works best for them in dealing with stress. By identifying stress, its causes and side affects managing stress will eventually become easier.



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Cider with Rosie

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“ Cider With Rosie” by Laurie Lee

“Cider With Rosie” by Laurie Lee is an exciting autobiography about the life of the author when he was younger in a village, where there were traditions that have been lost and rarely seen. There is during the book enough time for him to play ‘doctors and nurses’ with another girl in the village. We see many things about the village change, some of these are described in this essay.

One of the bigger changes was the introduction to the village of the “brass lamped motor car”. In Laurie Lee’s the horse was depended upon greatly, “man and horse were all the power we had”. Everything was done with the help of the horse, transport, ploughing fields to say a few. Without the horse then, everything would pretty much collapse, “the horse was king and almost everything grew around him”. Then the car came in modernising everything, the way they move from village to village and place to place. The cars went at such a fast speed to the villagers compared to the horse, “faced by speeds beyond comprehension”.

Just as the car replaced the horse, the charabanc replaced the carts. The carts used to be all they had, other than walking to get to other towns or villages. The carts didn’t hold many people but the price wasn’t too bad, “the carriage held six and the fare was two pence”. Some carts only ran about twice a week, however there were a few that ran more often, “Mr West, from Sheepscombe, ran a cart everyday”. The carts then started to be replaced by charabancs. It started only coming a few times year, but it eventually became more frequent. It allowed more people to leave the village and for people to come to the village, “the clamorous charabanc, the solid tyred bus climbed the dusty hills and more people came and went”.


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As the charabancs came allowing more people to leave the village, the younger generations seized the opportunity to leave the confines of the small village. The village began to break up and only the older people remained, “ soon the village would, break, dissolve, and scatter, become no more than a place for pensioners”. The village where everyone knew each other and everybody hardly ever left the village had ended with the introduction of easier ways to get out and leave the confines of the village.

Just as many people left the village new people came, including a new vicar, who was more up to date. The old vicar was too stuck in the past, he believed that everyone should still get married in a church, “the first young couple to get married in a registry office were roundly denounced by the pulpit”. The vicar that succeeded him was a vicar who wasn’t stuck in the past and the old way of doing things. He was more forgiving and lenient, “a young apologist succeeded him soon”.

In conclusion, many things have changed. Engines in cars and charabancs replaced the horses, and the old strict vicars were replaced with newer and more forgiving vicars. Many other things changed these are just a few.



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Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Customer Driven Quality

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In today’s total quality environment, organizations must have an intimate knowledge of who their customers are and what they perceive as quality. Customer driven quality can be stated as the following principle

Customers define quality and employees produce it (Goetsch).

While this is a simplified idea, it touches upon the basic idea that the consumers’ needs and satisfaction are the organization’s number one priority upon which their survival depends. Organizations utilizing this principle continuously strive to improve upon their products and services in order to exceed expectations and keep customers loyal to them.

Measuring satisfaction is one component of maintaining positive customer relationships. Understanding and building customer loyalty pays dividends. At a minimum, companies must know which of their customers will continue to do business with them, but loyal customers positively impact an organization in many other ways and ultimately increase profitability in the marketplace. Anyone can check a few boxes on a postcard or a survey card, but it is the duty of the manufacturers to gather information from its customers in order to define just exactly what the customers want. Satisfied customers may feel trapped by lack of choices in products that a manufacturer may offer and leave when something better comes along.


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In regards to the child car seats, parents are looking for the newest and upcoming trends and safety packages offered by many of the manufacturers. One of the latest developments that the customers are anxiously awaiting is the new ISOFIX car seat. “ISOFIX stands for International Standards Organization FIX. It is a new standard for installing child seats into cars, which is being adopted by vehicle manufacturers and is intended to make fitting child seats quick and simple. ISOFIX is an essential development because many people find it difficult to fit child seats correctly, and many surveys have found that a high proportion of the child seats are not fitted securely enough.” (Child Car Seats.org, 2000).

Manufacturers must make the customers aware of the realities of modern manufacturing. “Until the late 1980s, most manufactured fixtures in the U.S., even customized items-were for all intents and purposes built by hand, one at a time. Customizing a product, therefore, wasnt that big a deal. Since then, however, things have drastically changed. Manufacturing now utilizes intricate computer programs, extremely costly tooling, out-sourcing for certain components, and extensive CAD drawings for both fabrication and assembly” (Proquest, 2000). When creating a custom fixture, obviously, some or all of these must be created from scratch. This leads to the biggest hindrance to getting a custom fixture completed.

There are many groups, such as MADD, that are excited about seeing the results of such an item that has yet to hit the market. In addition, many parents are willing to pay the costly rate for the added safety devices that the various car seat manufacturers are charging for the items. It gives them the sense of stability and peace of mind. ISOFIX is designed to solve all these problems. The ultimate aim is that any ISOFIX child car seat that a consumer buys will fit their car simply by plugging it into the ISOFIX points.

“Unfortunately, it is taking a very long time for the technical details of the ISOFIX standard to be finalized. And then, the Regulation R44.0 will need to be updated to include the new standard” (Child Car Seats.org, 2000).

The true measure of success for Montana Rail Link is short and long-term profitability. Their common goal is to enhance profitability by managing costs and increasing business volume. Their business philosophy is Helping our Customers Grow and Prosper. They strive to be the lowest cost provider of transportation services.

All of their employees are expected to recognize that they work in a Service Industry and People Business. Their people are their most important asset. They create an atmosphere that demands results; with the attainment of those results, profit sharing rewards employees’ effort. Their strategy is to offer the best available value for our customers’ transportation and logistics dollars. They accomplish this by focusing on the quality of their service and the cost of their operation. In general, they prefer variable costs to fixed costs because variable casts will allow the company to survive any down market or economy.

Only a productive workplace with a commitment to excellence will allow them to remain a low cost producer. Then, as a viable company, they have the flexibility to lower prices to retain or increase market share, or to increase prices to enhance margins and improve profitability.

Safety and productivity complement one another. Their company is committed to supporting employees’ efforts in order to operate their railroad free of accidents and injuries. Given that level of commitment and support, employees are expected to accept the responsibility for their safety and the safety of their co-workers.

Management style is the key to developing and maintaining productive employees. They use a participatory management style to challenge each employee

-High performance expectations measured by employee evaluations

-Integrity, high ethical standards and rigorous compliance with laws and


Regulations

-Open door policy and willingness to listen

-Focus on company rather than departmental individual objectives

-Standardized policies and procedures

-Decision-making is pushed down rather than up

-Attitude to solve problems, improve communications and measure


Effectiveness

-Management training program provided to enhance leadership skills

Their focus remains outstanding customer service, for without the customer there is no business. The employees must understand that they control their own destiny in that they are the point of contact of the customer. Management style and financial philosophy can only hope to guide the company, but the employees carry it to its ultimate destination.

The United Way faced a scandal that had a huge impact on its future contributions. The President of the United Way, Bill Aramony, was asked to step down after exploiting the power of his position. This included first class travel, flights on the Concorde, and chauffeured cars in addition to his hefty salary, bonuses, and other benefits.


The United Way saw an immediate decline in contributions. Four years later, in 1996, the United Way finally exceeded inflation for the first time in seven years. However, we would be remise if we did not point out that total private giving in the United States increased 4% between 1 and 16, while the United Way recognized growth of only 6 % in the same period.


As noted by David Goetsch in Quality Management, a leader must be able to “establish an ethical framework within which all employees and the company as a whole operate” (2000). Mr. Aramony clearly failed to lead by example. By setting a poor example, Aramony exposed his organization to further unethical behavior by its employees.

The United Way raises few billion annually and supports over 4,000 agencies. Due to the scandal at the United Way, these agencies also recognized a decline in contributions. Damage to workplace fund raising from the scandal also hurt the “alternative funds” movement. After dramatic double-digit growth throughout the 1980s, alternative funds could only achieve a 6.5% gain the year of the United Way scandal.

The United Way’s Board of Directors sought swift recovery from the scandal. They appointed a new President within days of Aramony’s forced resignation. Next, they implemented immediate travel restrictions including a ban on first-class travel and the supersonic Concorde jet as well as a requirement to use taxis or other economical ground travel. This quick reaction showed their customers that they were committed to changing the culture.

It has taken several years for the United Way to fully recover from the scandal but it is clear that by taking action against unethical behavior, the United Way ultimately improved their quality of services provided to their internal and external customers. The United Way now has a leader that sets a positive example for the organization. He has made a commitment to credibility and quality. Without this, no non-profit organization will be successful in achieving maximum contributions from, and for, their customers.

The US Department of Education was organized in 1980 by Congress. Its primary mission is to strengthen the Federal commitment to assuring access to equal educational opportunity for every individual as well as promoting excellence for all Americans. To that end, the DOE administers Federal Financial Aid funding and the No Child Left behind program as well as supporting educational research to name a few of its many programs. The DOE is run by the Presidential nominate, the Secretary of Education. The organization serves many internal and external customers, such as it’s many sub departments, colleges and Universities, and ultimately the individual student. The DOE must be able to met or exceed all of its customer expectations, or its funding will ultimately be cut and the organization will disappear from our government. If this were to happen, there would be a void within the government until consumer demand required the creation of a new federal agency to fulfill the needs to the American public.

The four previous examples all illustrate how diverse the idea of customer driven quality is, and also how widely it can be applied. The United Way and the Department of Education are both public organizations which depend upon their customers for their continued existence. The Montana Rail Link and manufacturing in general are both very good examples of private sectors governed by the needs and desires of their consumers. Their success in the global marketplace depends upon the ability to anticipate and satisfy customer needs to the fullest.

National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy, Retrieved on Line June 7, 2000 at http//www.ncrp.org/reports/charity7.htm.

Goetsch, D.L., & Davis, S.B. (2000). Quality Management Introduction to Total

Quality Management for Production, Processing, and Services (4th Ed.)

http//www.childcarseats.org.uk/standards/isofix.htm

http//www.ed.gov/about/welcome.jsp

http//proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?Did=000000187581&Fmt=&Deli=1&Mtd=1&Idx =4&Sid=1&RQT=0



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Thursday, February 16, 2012

Civil Disobedience

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People have different morals, values and beliefs on certain issues but it is those few that take action who can testify why they would risk their freedom for what they believe. The act of civil disobedience is acted upon to draw public awareness and take a stand for what one believes. They must believe strongly enough to put their freedom on the line. Civil disobedience helped us learn from the past, question the present and improve the future. There are many people who have taken a stand and influenced others by using civil disobedience. People such as Rosa Parks, Thoreau and the many more that won’t be known by name by for standing up for their beliefs. Civil disobedience is a form of protest and resistance usually in a non-violent way that is justifiably carried out in objection to a law.

Civil disobedience is the discriminate violation of a law for a vital social purpose, which is not only justifiable but also necessary when a fundamental human right is at stake. If laws are not questioned and challenged then there is no point in enforcing them. Activists such as Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks and Thoreau all practiced civil disobedience by questioning laws. Civil disobedience should not be tolerated but essential in keeping a society (Zinn).

Justifying civil disobedience involves inequality being demonstrated by the government. One must prove that civil disobedience is the answer to injustice (Bedau). One should take a stand and go against the government if they feel a law to be morally unfair. If there is a chance to make society better by breaking a law then civil disobedience is justifiable. The purpose of civil disobedience is to raise awareness and understanding of an unjust law. To do this successfully is to do so peacefully, violence won’t draw onlookers or an audience. Martin Luther King Jr. said at his Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech, “Nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time” (Ideas that changed the world). Nonviolence helps in attracting others towards agreeing with the injustice of the law. There are numerous examples of civil disobedience helping society.


On December 1, 1855, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in the back of the bus to a white man. She was arrested for saying no to the driver’s request (Bedau). This example of civil disobedience was the first of many in the civil rights movement. Rosa Parks did not use violence to stand up for herself and African Americans but she used silence. When threatened to have the police called he response was, “just call them” (Bedau). With no intention of moving, Rosa Parks said more with her actions then violence at that time could have. A strong woman with tired feet made a difference by using civil disobedience. Rosa Parks not getting up to give her seat to a white man was punished but many around the country heard of her great courage.


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If a law is passed, placed and enforced then it is asking to be broken. According to Aquinas, “if a civil law conflicts with the natural law or with the eternal law, not only may we violate it, we must violate it”. Everyone does not and will not interpret laws the same way and with the same meaning. Because of this people need to stand up for what they believe if a law is contradicting their morals and values.

Henry David Thoreau is one person and perhaps was the first in America to take a stand for his beliefs in a civil disobedient manner. Thoreau gave a lecture before the Concord Lyceum in January 1848, “On the Relation of the Individual to the State” later titled “Civil Disobedience” (Bedau). Disagreeing with the Massachusetts war tax Thoreau refused to pay, as a result ended up in jail. Thoreau got his point across, by refusing to pay the tax and was successful. Thoreau also opened others eyes to the problem in Texas. When one man stood up and revolted against a law, democracy was changed. The questioning of laws would continue and raise opinions that might not be noticed if civil disobedience did not take place. Laws that are controversial when passed are laws more likely to be involved in civil disobedience.

Outside abortion clinics is a widely held place for civil disobedience to occur. Pro-life protesters sit in front of clinic doors to prevent pregnant women from entering to kill the unborn. Those participating are non-violently and publicly showing they are opposed to the pro-choice law. The Supreme Court case Roe vs. Wade stated that women have the choice to have an abortion. Protestors are not necessarily breaking that law but protesting it because they object to and think it is wrong.

On the opposing side, some think that civil disobedience causes disrespect for laws. Civil disobedient people are not law violators. The law that is being broken is done so for the reason that someone thinks that law is morally wrong not just to revolt. It is simply a way to draw attention to a specific topic. Civil disobedience is a much better solution than chaos and riots which both draw awareness to the idea of a law being immoral.

The idea of civil disobedience has worked in the past to change laws and will continue to make a difference in the future. The government knows that there have been wrong doings in the past, such as slavery and segregation. One of the many reasons that slavery was abolished was for the countless people that participated in civil disobedience. If a stand was not taken the government might not have known how wrong the laws were and nothing might not have changed. How can one say that something that has such an influence be wrong? Our government is based on “of the people, for the people and by the people” there is no way a country that is run on this basis can expect the people not to object to laws put in place that they oppose to. Laws need to be objected to and questioned in order benefit society.

Civil disobedience is justifiably done in objection to laws. Rosa Parks and Thoreau are just two of scores of people who have stood up for themselves using civil disobedience. Civil disobedience is a way of helping to make a better government and grow as a society. The past proves that mistakes have been made and maybe presently more are being made. The only way to show disagreement or protest to a law is to do so non-violently and publicly. This method attracts more of an audience and gets the point across without doing harm. Standing up for what an individual believes should be embraced not looked at as wrong. Those who have taken a stand are now viewed as heroes for what they have done, if nothing was protested nothing would have changed. Civil disobedience is definitely justifiable in every sense of the word.



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Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Role of Human Resource Department

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The mission of the State in the Department of Mental Health is to improve the quality of life for adults with serious and persistent mental illness and children with severe emotional disturbance. This is accomplished by a network of effective efficient and culturally competent mental health services that promotes the rights responsibilities, rehabilitation and recovery of the patients served. We aim to provide a system of care that is responsive and appropriate offering services that are of high quality, accessible and cost effective. The components of the system act as a safety net for the most vulnerable citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

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Role of Human Resource Department

The Central and Area Human Resource Office is one of your first contacts with State Employment. This office strives to be instrumental in developing and implementing service, payroll labor relations, staff, development, procedures and policies. The daily operation of this department includes hiring, promotions, classifications, compensation changes and the administration of the benefit plans and programs. Permanent personnel records of each employee are kept by the Human Resource Department. The only changes in this department are the ones bargained by union State contract.

Comparison

Human recourses has shed its old personnel image and gained recognition as a virtual player in organizational performance. This includes higher employee productivity and financial performance. In today’s tight labor market the ability to attract and retain quality employees is a strategic weapon in private employment. The Human Resource Department consist of Resource Managers, employees are viewed as assets and the goal is to integrate the company’s goals with its employees needs.

Training Techniques

The State recognizes the importance of training programs, the development of career ladders and opportunity structures. Training schedules are formulated by employee,  union agreement focusing on the development and improvement. These programs are designed to facilitate individual career development for equitable employment, may involve external education resources to meet agency needs. The criterion for this training varies for job titles, classes and functions within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The State also recognizes that technological changes may require the need for employees to develop additional skills. To ensure that employees are adequately prepared the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is committed when ever necessary to provide additional training programs and equipment to meet these needs. In 2000 a new computer based program has been added to the training program.

Comparison

Many private organizations spend one hundred billion dollars each year on training. This includes orientation classroom training computer assisted instruction and case discussion groups. This helps retain and develop productive employees and helps the employee develop their own abilities. Many companies increase training budgets and try different approaches. Employees learn multiple skills so they can perform a number of different jobs and providing variety and enabling employers to adjust to changes in staffing needs. Every company has their own preferred way of doing business but makes provisions to take performance to a higher level.

Wage and Salary Increases

State employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements that are negotiated with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the union. Rates are determines for each job class and provides a particular fate. Increases arise after 5 weeks from the initial date of entry into each job group. Experience is not a factor at entry of employment, and step raises are determined by performance evaluations, attendance or other factors. Cost of living increases are also negotiated into these steps. Performance pay increases are available depending upon legislative action within the State. The State relies on indirect payment system that compensates its employees with benefits.

Comparison

The private sector employs Human Resources compensation specialist to establish and maintain a pay structure. Often outside consultants are used. Employees with higher skills receive higher pay than those with lower skills. A direct financial payment system that often includes incentives commissions and bonuses. The pay systems is structured with the companies strategic aims. Often they emphasize on performance and the result is higher salaries with more expensive benefits or no benefits at all. This direct payment system has various laws that oversee both State and Private employment. Minimum wage, overtime fates, maximum hours and labor age provisions that influence the design of either plan.

Benefits

Every company including the State knows that a compensation package requires more than money. Although wage and salary is an important component, it still is only a part. One reason that benefits are important is that health care cost is increasing so quickly. The State provides a benefit package that compensates for the standard pay packages and negotiated pay increases. This includes

· Health Insurance

The State Pays 10% of the cost.

· Dental Eye

Covered under union dues.

· Life Insurance

$5000.00 automatic with employment. Employees can purchase additional coverage equal to 5 times the amount of yearly salary at a rate of 15 cents per $1000.00.

· Tuition

State employees are eligible to attend any State University or College to fulfill undergraduate or graduate degrees and advance personnel growth.

· Disability Long or Short Term

Short term insurance $4.1 and covers 6 months of wage lost.

Long term insurance $6.75 and covers 1 year of lost wages.

· Differed Compensation

Employees are able to set aside voluntary portions of earnings into investment plans.

o Vacations and Holidays/1 paid Holiday per year.

o Unemployment Insurance

o Workers compensation

o Retirement

o Dependent Care Assistance Plan

o Savings Bonds

o State Credit Unions

· Comparison

The private sector with a larger pay scale requires employees to pay a larger portion of Health and Welfare benefits. Many companies only observe 60% of health cost and addition long and short-term disabilities are purchased by outside vendors contracted by the organization. In developing benefits plans, a private organization is able to negotiate what benefits to offer, who receives the coverage, the degree of employee choice in determine benefits and the percent of coverage they will absorb. These figures can change at the employer’s discretion. The State contracts are set for a term of years.

· Exemplary Practices

o The State recognizes the need to promote safety in the workplace and to eliminate the perception that violence is “just part of the job”. It continually adds to non-violence education in the workplace.

o Power, a policy developed by the State to create a partnership of leadership and training of its employees and allow employees to seek training and education at no cost. It began in 17 with State College tuition and each year has added classes, programs, workshops, seminars and certificate programs available to employees. Since 10, 00 workshops have been added to this program.

· Code of Conduct

Massachusetts demands a code of conduct for its employees not covered by the union contract. It holds its employees to high ethical and moral standards, knowledge of this condition of employment. Ignorance of the code of conduct will not constitute a defense against termination of employment. Any employee who is convicted of a crime of minor statue is subject to disciplinary action at work. Any employee who is indicted, charged or arrested for a felony level charge of misconduct will be suspended without pay pending the resolution of the case. If a guilty finding is entered again the employee whether by plea, jury or bench verdict, including “no contest pleas” the employee will be terminated from employment. A no guilty finding will result in reinstatement of employment and retroactive payment of wages and benefits.

· Comparison

The private organization uses deliberate care in terminating employees to avoid wrongful discharge suits. You don’t always have the right to dismiss employees without contract and specific company guidelines. The private sector contains and “at will” employment relationship and this is also becoming limited under federal EEO laws. Various States and court rulings are limiting the right to dismiss employees at will.

· Areas of Concern

Employee relations in the State of Massachusetts are much at a standstill. The idea of “do only what is expected” and collect your paycheck has taken over many of the direct care systems. Not many in State employment are enthusiastic about worker empowerment and advancement.



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Monday, February 13, 2012

Cathedral

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In reading “Cathedral”, I felt the narrator was filled with a lot of resentment. He resented the close relationship his wife had with Robert, a blind man whom he had never met. Throughout most of the reading he had a negative attitude towards their relationship. However, at the end, I believe he may have come to realize something about himself.

The narrator made it a point to mention he was not at all thrilled about having a blind man in his home. At first I thought he may have been discriminating against him, but as I continued, I got the impression perhaps there was a bit more to it. I believe the narrator felt his wife shared more things with Robert than with him. It bothered him tremendously to know that Robert once touched his wife’s face. When he mentioned she wrote a poem to describe her experience and her feelings about it, he stated “he didn’t think much of it”. This statement gave me the impression that the narrator was a very insensitive and cold-hearted man. Another example of his insensitivity was in regards to the death of Robert’s wife. He stated “the other half of the coin went into the box with her. Pathetic.” How could he say it was pathetic? I think it was beautiful. A mans’ love for his wife should never be considered as pathetic! When he told his wife he didn’t have any blind friends, she pointed out to him that he didn’t have any friends. This left me to assume he wasn’t a very sociable and friendly individual either.

I believe from the very beginning of Roberts’ arrival, the narrator felt a bit threatened. He watched through the window as they both came up the drive. He saw his wife smiling in the car and commented that it was “amazing”. Why would that be amazing? His reaction made me wonder if he had ever made his wife smile. I was not at all getting a good impression of the husband.


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After their introduction and after dinner, the narrator did not make much of an effort to converse with Robert. For the most part, he only listened to as his wife and Robert carried on. When his wife went upstairs to change into something more comfortable, he was left alone with him. I believe the wife may have purposely taken a long time to return in order to force her husband to converse with Robert. While watching television, the narrator eventually found something to talk to him about. As he watched the cathedrals shown on television and realized Robert did not understand the term cathedral, he tried to describe them. They were large and built by people who “in those olden days wanted to be close to God”. I think he tried to imply people these days don’t want to be close to God. It was clear to me he was not a religious man. I do believe he sincerely tried describing what the cathedrals looked like but found it too difficult. It was difficult to explain the details because, as he said, the cathedrals “meant nothing special to him”.

When the narrator agreed to draw a cathedral, Robert made the point to encourage him and let him know how good he was doing. I think once he closed his eyes and continued to draw, he felt a sense of worth. At the end of the reading he stated, “I didn’t feel like I was inside anything”. I had a hard time trying to understand what he meant by that. I concluded that perhaps he knew what it was like to be worth something. I feel he realized he had been a stranger in his own marriage, in his own home.




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Saturday, February 11, 2012

Macbeth is a Tragic Hero

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A Tragic Hero is a common figure in many of Shakespeare’s works. A Tragic Hero is usually a figure of royalty, fame or greatness. This person is predominately good, but falls from prominence due to personality flaws that eventually lead to self-destruction. Macbeth’s major flaws are his ambition and impressionability. Due to their flaws, a Tragic Hero’s actions are often atrocious and cause them to battle with their conscience after their desires have been accomplished. These battles with their conscience evoke empathy from the audience. A Shakespearean Tragic Hero will always lose their life in the end of the play as a result of re-establishment of what is good in the play. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the title figure of the play can be seen as the Tragic Hero.

There are many factors which contribute to the decline of Macbeth. The three main factors which contribute greatly to Macbeths degeneration are the prophecies which were told to him by the witches, Lady Macbeth’s influence and ability to manipulate Macbeths judgment, and finally Macbeths long time ambition which drove his desire to be king. Macbeths growing character decays from a noble man to a violent individual.



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When the play begins, Macbeth’s greatness is already established. Macbeth has already earned the title of Thane of Glamis and will soon become the Thane of Cawdor. The fact that he has these titles demonstrates to the reader that Macbeth is good and an important figure of responsibility. He is also addressed as Valiant cousin, worthy gentlemen. (Shakespeare), Brave Macbeth, well he deserves that name. (Shakespeare) and as Worthy Thane. by King Duncan. They way in which he is addressed by the influential members of his country further informs the reader that Macbeth is respectable. However, after Macbeth interacts with the three witches, his curiosity is stirred by their prophecies, especially their prediction that he will become king. He commits murder in order to fulfill their prophecy and then returns to the three witches a second time for reassurance. The three witches, with the aid of three apparitions, then revealed to Macbeth in Act 5, Scene 1 the following prophecies

'Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware Macduff! Beware the Than of Fife!…Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Be bloody, bold and resolute. Laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth…Be lion-mettled, proud and take no care who chafes, who frets or where conspirers are. Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him' (Shakespeare)

Because of these predictions, Macbeth believes that no one can harm him. However, this is a false sense of security. Macduff, who was born by a Caesarean section and therefore was not born of woman, ultimately killed Macbeth, thus revealing that the witches predictions were only half-truths.

Macbeth’s good nature is increasingly defeated by one of his major flaws-ambition. His ambition and desire to become king leads Macbeth to take rash and sudden actions that are immoral. This includes ordering the murders of his friend Banquo and his son and Lady Macduff and her children, as well as personally handling the murder of King Duncan. His ambition is also displayed by his willingness to kill anyone who threatens his power.

Macbeth is largely influenced not only by the three witches, but by Lady Macbeth as well. Lady Macbeth encourages Macbeth to murder the king, Duncan. She helps plan out the murder and even offers to do it herself. When Macbeth changes his mind and decides not to carry out Duncan’s murder, Lady Macbeth questions his masculinity and love for her.

[We will proceed no further in this business.] …From this time such I account thy love. Art thou afeard to be the same in thine act and valor as thou art in desire? Woudst thou have that which thou esteem’st the ornament of life and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting I dare not wait upon I would, like the poor cat I’ th’ adage?…When you durst do it, then you were a man; And to be more than you were, you would be so much more than a man…They have made themselves and that their fitness now does unmake you…
(Shakespeare)

After Lady Macbeth accuses him of acting like a coward, he agrees to continue with Duncan’s murder.
Macbeth is a prime example of a Shakespearean Tragic Hero. He is represented as a good man who, through his major character flaws- ambition and impressionability- falls from grace. After struggling with his conscience over the evil deeds he had committed throughout the play, Macbeth is killed and the rightful heir to the throne is restored to power.



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Thursday, February 9, 2012

Interpretation of Dinesen's 'The Blue Jar'

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Plot Summary

The death of a samurai named Kanzawa no Takehiko and the rape and disappearance of his young wife, Masago, is being investigated. Four slightly different testimonies are given to a high ranking police commissioner by a woodcutter, a Buddhist priest, a policeman and an old woman. Also, three confessions are given, one by the thief Tajomaru, the raped wife and the dead man through a medium. Each confession is contradictory to the others since all claim to have been the one to have killed Takehiko.

Conclusion

The location of the murder is agreed upon by all involved parties. The sequence of events is also agreed upon by all involved (as shown below). However, the murderer is yet to be discovered due to mismatching evidence and conflicting accounts of what occurred in the grove.

Timeline of Events (in relation to the day of the testimonies/confessions)

Evidence

Colour of Kimonos

Takehiko seen by the woodcutter wearing a bluish silk kimono, as well as a wrinkled head-dress of the Kyoto style. However wife says she pierced a lilac coloured kimono when she supposedly murdered him. Masago is wearing a lilac kimono with a facial scarf. Tajomaru is definitely wearing a blue kimono.

Swords

Takehiko is armed with a sword and bow and arrows before his death. Both Masago and Tajomaru state that Takehikofs sword is taken by Tajomaru. In Tajomarufs confession he claims to have killed Takehiko with his own sword before stealing Takehikofs sword. Masago claims to have killed her husband with her own small sword since she could not find her husbands. Takehiko claims also to have been killed with his wifefs small sword except by his own hand.

If the wife is telling the truth then it makes sense that she would have had to have removed her small sword from her husband's chest in order to try committing suicide as she claims.




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Wednesday, February 8, 2012

European Union

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Imports and Exports Rules Prohibiting Quantitative Restrictions
There is virtually no hope of tying up a global trade deal on time before the end of next year, the European Unions chief negotiator warned yesterday as bitter recriminations began to fly over the collapse of the negotiations on Sunday night.

The EU attacked the medieval World Trade Organisation and, together with the United States, blamed some developing countries, who in turn attacked the intransigence of the worlds two largest economic blocs.

Meanwhile some British pressure groups laid the blame at the door of the British delegation at Cancun, led by trade and industry secretary Patricia Hewitt, for not restraining the EUs demand for new rules to govern foreign investment - the issue that finally brought down the talks.

Pascal Lamy, the EUs Trade Commissioner, said last weeks talks in the Mexican beach resort of Cancun would have had to have settled half of the agenda to have any hope of meeting the 1 January 2005 deadline.


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Our target was 50 per cent, the result was 10 per cent - you can draw conclusions yourself on the date, he said. Lets not beat about the bush - Cancun has failed. The Doha round is not dead but it needs a lot of intensive care.

The issue will now go back to the committees of the WTOs Geneva headquarters. But Mr Lamy warned My experience is that ambassadors in Geneva cant agree on things that ministers have not agreed in Cancun.

After saying that he would not play the blame game, he said the WTO, which organised the negotiations, was a medieval body that was in need of urgent reform before any fresh attempt to seal a trade deal. The rules and procedures of this organisation cannot support the weight of the task, he said.

Robert Zoellick, the chief US negotiator, said his country had come ready to negotiate but accused others of being unwilling even to work off the texts that were produced as the basis of negotiations.

Whether developed or developing, there were can do and wont do countries here. The rhetoric of the wont do overwhelmed the concerted efforts of the can do. 'Won't do led to impasse,' he said. Some larger developing countries have spent too much time on inflammatory rhetoric before getting down to negotiations.

The alliance of three African-centred groups that led the walk out, the African, Caribbean Pacific group, the Least Developed Countries and the African Union, blamed the Europeans for pushing for the launch of talks on the so-called Singapore issues - foreign investment, domestic competition, trade facilitation and transparency in government procurement. Jayan Krishna Cutteree, a Mauritian minister and spokesman for the ACP, said 'We did not make a rash judgement. At the point at which we broke up there could not have been any chance of a compromise.'

Ms Hewitt said the talks were a shocking waste of time and money. She said 'Luis Derbez, the Mexican chairing the negotiations, pulled the plug, adding It is bitterly disappointing as we could have done a deal.'

Peter Sutherland, the former Director General of the WTO and chairman of BP, said the outcome is deeply disappointing, we needed a positive signal for the world economy and this certainly doesnt provide one. However we should not be too apocalyptic about the future, it has always been the case that these talks are prone to very public failures.

Pressure groups blamed Washington and Brussels for wrecking the deal while some said that EU member states should have acted to change the European mandate before it was too late. John Hilary, trade policy analyst at ActionAid, said The UK set Lamy running on this issue ands they did not pull him back.

Barry Coates, director of the World Development Movement said the new issues should never have been on the agenda. 'What part of no did the EU not understand?' he asked. The UK government was one of the countries that has pushed the new issues [and it] must take its part of the blame.

Mr Zoellick gave a heavy hint that the US would not embark on bilateral negotiations with individual countries - something that advocates of a trade deal had feared because of the one-sided nature of such talks.

We have free trade agreement with six countries and we are negotiating with 14 more, it said. It was revealing that a number of developing countries have expressed their interest in free trade agreements with the US.




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Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Ergonomics

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What is Ergonomics?

Ergonomics refers to the relationship between the worker and the work environment , ensuring that all equipment and work areas meet the needs of the person performing that task.

We will be looking at Workstation requirements and posture, the consequences of not following the correct procedures and Tips to create a safe, comfortable, and healthy office environment.

Workstation requirements and posture.

Operators in a workstation need to ensure that all equipment is positioned to eliminated problems that could occur.

A well designed work area will aid the work flow in the office and the efficiency of the operator can be maximised. The major risks include physical, mental and eye strain. These are associated with a poorly set-up work area, but can be avoided. To avoid these risks, it is important that you organise your work environment appropriately, use the equipment in the correct manner and take breaks while typing for a long period of time.

Duty of care in the workplace

Questions

1. In terms of occupational health and safety, what does the term “ duty of care” mean?

You and your workplace has a responsibility to make sure that yourself and others are safe.

2. What does S.A.M stand for?

Spot the hazard

Assess the risk

Make a change

3. Describe some of the examples of good design to minimise risk that you saw in this segment of the video.

· Architect should work closely with occupational health and safety officers

· Wide aisles

· Clearly marked walkways

· Extraction system to reduce toxic fumes.

· Wear suitable designed clothing

· The employer must issue you with the appropriate safety equipment

· Hearing protection and sound proofing

· Well designed equipment reduces manual handling


4. How does regular maintenance and cleaning contribute to a safe work environment? ( house keeping)

Clean as you go and reduce clutter and rubbish

In a wet working area electrical leads must be kept at a safe distance

5. How can workplace morale be enhanced by attention to health and safety issues? ( co-operation )

Working together as a team

6. Describe the way workplace consultation is depicted in this segment of the video?

Warn each other of risks and dangers

Regular meetings to discuss safety issues

Staff have a responsibility to report any concerns to management




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Sunday, February 5, 2012

Mistake

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Once upon a time, there was me, and then there was my room, where nothing exciting ever happens, but this is where the story I am going to tell you happened. Now, this happened during my time in China before I came to this country, this story may seem strange and typical to most of you, but I am going to write about it anyways since it’s a homework assignment, I apologize ahead for the tortuously trite plot. You may not know much about our culture, or the way I lived, but I am going to tell you something about myself.

I was 8 back then, my world was imperfect, the only child, strict parents, small living space, books after books on the bookshelf, and living in my parent’s dream. The education system is very strict, rigid, and hackneyed, always reading more knowledge, memorize them, and remember them as if its your bible. I was a boy, ignorant of the real world, and had a routine and lived a mindless life. Nothing exciting is in my life, everyday is the same, wake-up, eat, study, homework, sleep, no thoughts of our own.

That was all well, and a fine life-style to live under, but people like me are just not fit to study rigidly all day, then become brain dead. I always wanted some toys to play with; in a world where birthday celebration is just some white man’s notion, life can become bleak. Little kids always made mistakes in their life, and this is one in which I will always remember, and learn from.

I was always tempted by the little shops that opened around my school, and little children like me are always interested in the toys in the store. During study time, and free time, I would always dream about the toys, and hope to have something to do, but most of the time, I will be bored out of my mind. I always think about how long this is going to go on, and when it can’t get any worse, it usually does; my parents will yell at me for doing nothing, because both my father and mother are hard workers who are rarely home.


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One of those days, I couldn’t control myself any longer, so I decided that maybe I can steal money from my mom’s purse, and buy something “nice” for myself, at the same time not let her find out. So that is what I did, because I had always wanted some toys in which I could enjoy as a child, and make my life more colorful. This scheme went on successfully for a while, and that was the happiest time for me as a child; life was wonderful, I was probably showing any joyful emotion for the first time ever. For the first time, I picked up all the disappointments and glued them into joy.

Of course, this has to come to a stop, because its wrong. Joy never lasts for eternity, it’s always evanescent, fleeting, and peripheral. My mom found out about my stealing, and caught me cold handed with evidence. From there, its like going through the Spanish inquisition, as my parents took turn asking me questions, prosecute me, and the occasional violence that was necessary to make me understand. Now, I tried to the best of my ability to feign an answer that would satisfy them, and it is then that I realize I am the worst liar in the world; even today when I look back, I still laugh at some of the excuses I came up.

That was my story, its nothing new, but it was one mistake I wish I never committed. I still love my parents so very much. Life is never perfect, and joy never lasts forever. Sometimes, I think that I would had done the same thing again, if I could go back in time. I would take that moment of joy, and keep it in my heart, we don’t have many joyful moments in life, I want to enjoy all of mine to the best of my ability. Now, you would think that’s about the worst story you ever heard, and I wouldn’t be surprised if I hear crickets chirping, coming up with nonfiction stories always had been my weak side. Lastly, I just want to quote from my favorite poet E.E. Cummings “may my heart always be open to little birds who are the secrets of living”.



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Saturday, February 4, 2012

Major Roles of Slaves

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In colonial society unfree labor played some major roles not only in the south but also in the north. Northern unfree labor, called indentured servants. Indentured servants who worked for a family for their freedom. A family owner is aloud to add or subtract the number of years they must work to end their serving time in the house.

In South there were the tradition slaves. Where the slaves worked for the slave owner, then when the slave had kids they also work for the owner. The slaves in the South cold never be free unless their master set them free and even then they would always have to carry proof of freedom.

In colonial society the indentured servants and slaves would serve the family by doing chores in the house and in the fields. In the North indentured servants would do house chores like cooking, laundry, and cleaning up the house. Some were educated because they would travel over from England wanting freedom in the New World , but to earn it they would have to serve in a house for 7 years unless it was changed by their owner.

In the South slaves jobs were very different from indentured servants. Slaves usually were immigrants or prisoners of war who were forced to work in the larger plantations. They mostly worked in the cotton fields or other food producing crops. It was against the law to teach a slave to read or write because they were afraid they would try to rebel if they were educated.

In conclusion slaves and indentured servants played major roles in the development of the colonies, helping them with work they might have had trouble doing on their own. Colonial society needed slaves to do what they did not want to do and get it done faster then them by their self would have been able to. Without extra help from slaves and servants the colonies would have had even more trouble surviving.



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George Washington

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George Washington was a good man. He was the first president of the United States. He once visited coventry, Connecticut during the revolutionary war. He was one of the founding fathers of the country; not to mention, he had wood teeth. He also wore a wig as was the custom back then. He crossed the Delaware river and was part of a famous painting. He resided in Mount Vernon with his signficant other, Martha. His face is now on mount Rushmore, along with Abe Lincon, Ben Franklin, and Micheal Jackson. He never actually got to live in the White House, as it was just being built while he was serving his presidential term. He was not too happy about this when he died, but hey what can you do. He also cutdown a cherry tree on his farm estate that he maintained in Hawaii. He died in his home town of Walla Walla, Washington, at the side of his daughter Tanya who starred on Real World Chicago. He also had a 20 foot Boston Whaler that he enjoyed fishing for tuna with. Tuna, Chicken of the Sea. He liked to swim, as a matter of fact he swam 10 miles a day to keep in shape. He once swam in the Arctic but had to stop as his toes grew cold. His presidency was followed up by john adams, who was the former vice president. The cherry tree that he cut down was feet tall, and the trunk was inches wide, when he chopped it down it fell on his wife, and killed her instantly on impact. George being very upset, killed his son, and then lived happily ever after marrying the aforementioned daughter Tanya, and they had a son named Gibson.


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Friday, February 3, 2012

The Levellers

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Introduction

Exploring the environment of 17th century Britain is never an easy task. With different countries, religions and individuals vying for power, it is a more complex situation than any political arena we are usually familiar with. Although my topic relates to the Levellers party and its subsequent demise, it is impossible to understand their rise without explaining the circumstances which helped to create them. Firstly I must give a brief outline as to how the British kingdom found itself in such an unstable condition. I also need to give a description of the hierarchical nature of its society so as to show where the attitudes of the Levellers came from. Only then can I speak of the party itself, its aims and beliefs, what took place and why I believe they failed to implement their ideas.

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Before the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, Britain had enjoyed a period of relative political stability. Yet over the course of less than half a century, it would find itself in the thralls of civil war. In March of 1645 Charles I, a man who as a monarch has been described as “woefully inadequate” came to power. After a sneaky double cross to extract money from Parliament to fight a war against France, Charles dissolved Parliament and so began what the Whigs called “the eleven year tyranny”. During these years, between 1635-1640 Charles attempted a policy of absolute rule, the end result of which was a budget forever in the red. In an attempt to gain revenue, Charles implemented a number of laws designed to fine the gentry which caused a great deal of anger and resentment and which after ten years, led to people refusing to pay their taxes. He then set about trying to increase taxes in Scotland but thanks to inflation, the Scots really did not have much to tax. He also tried to reform the Scottish Church to align it with the English model, which led to an open revolt. In 1628 Scotland raised an army and in 1629 it invaded England. Charles sent his own army to meet the Scots but no fighting ensued. He then called Parliament and when they would not do his bidding, dissolved it again. Meanwhile the Scots sat at Newcastle demanding payment for their time. Finally Parliament was called again and this time passed an act which stated that it could only dissolve itself which led to both the beginning of the long Parliament (1640-1645) and the Scottish army receiving its compensation. The elections for the new parliament were keenly contested with the end result of the House of Commons dominated by Conservatives who opposed Charles’s rule. No direct move could be made against the King himself so Parliament pushed to rid itself of his advisers which led to the executions of Thomas Wentworth and Archbishop Laud. Also, many of the King’s actions were declared illegal by Parliament which led to the dismantling of the King’s apparatus of personal rule (absolution of feudal revenues, abolition of Court of High Commission, etc.) and the establishment of the supremacy of Common Law in England. The victory that the Scots had achieved was also seen by the Irish with mixed emotions. Firstly the Irish who had always been viewed as semi Neanderthal by the English and had long been victims of exploitation, saw that their oppressors were in a weak military position. Also with the strength of Scotland and their Presbyterian church a serious threat seemed to be in the air for the Irish Catholics. In 1641 an uprising occurred in Ireland which led to stories of atrocities against Presbyterians and fear of an Irish invasion. Parliament who was fearful of the King as the commander and chief of the army decided to create its own force and in 1645 the New Model Army emerged, led by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell. This army would come to form one corner of a political triangle which would soon contribute to the unease felt by the country.

Now that I have given a brief account of the lead up to the time of the Levellers emergence I will quickly discuss the structure of British society and then tackle the party and the events themselves.

Before discussing the emergence of the Levellers, their goals, movements and subsequent failure, I will present a brief overview of the English society they held in contempt. Life under the Tudors and Stuarts was, as Keith Wrighton said “An all pervasive system of social inequality.”. The social hierarchy of the time was so overwhelming that it dictated what colours you were allowed to wear, what you were allowed to eat and how you were supposed to speak. The entire system was based on the ownership of land which gave people status as well as wealth. However with over one third of the population living below the poverty line and the upper classes dwarfed in numbers by the lower classes, the wealthy few lived in fear of uprising and revolution by the majority. If this were to happen the system which allowed them to live their exclusive lives would be threatened. Roughly divided into four social levels, the gentlemen, the citizens and bourgeoisie, yeomen and the lower classes which included day labourers, poor husbandmen and the like, everything depended on status. An extremely important aspect of this was that there existed a certain amount of social mobility which allowed people to progress or regress in rank. Therefore often people, especially those in the upper or middle groups were interested in working within the system so as to maintain their status and lifestyle or better it. However thanks to a number of social tools such as the Church, the political system and the law, the upper classes managed to suppress the less well off and control the country to their benefit. For example, all members of the population were expected to attend Church (although not all did) every Sunday, where parish ministers held a captive audience and through entwining religion and politics, could aid in keeping dissent at a minimum. Also it was accepted that the King had a divine right to rule and therefore any act against him was also an act against God Himself. The King initially had unrestricted power in regard to taxation. One of the ways in which tax was collected was through tithes, a tax which was collected in the name of the Church and of which no one was free.


With the battle continuing between the supporters of the Monarchy and Parliament and with no agreement between the two immediately foreseeable, the time was right for both religious and political extremists to sow their seeds among the population. One such group which emerged in the 1640’s were known as the Levellers, led primarily by the charismatic John Lilburne but also including Richard Overton, William Walwyn and John Wildman. The Levellers are often viewed as “the first democratic political movement in modern history.” (The Emergence of a Nation State, P.50). Influenced by both the Protestant doctrine of the spiritual equality of all believers (The Levellers and Franchise, P.60) which informed their beliefs in collective decision making and “the collapse of the old political order under the pressure of civil wars” (The Levellers and Franchise, P.60), many of their doctrines were based upon Natural Law which dealt with rights that all men should be entitled to. Their demands and proclamations included their belief that all men were created equal and thus should be treated so, that the collective people were the sovereign power of the nation, not the Monarchy and therefore the only way to create a legitimate state was by electing members to a parliament to collectively rule. The State’s main function was simply to protect its citizens. However the question of who would be entitled to vote (the franchise) was never totally agreed upon within the Leveller organization itself (e.g. many within the party believed wage earners had forfeited their right to vote). They also believed in an early doctrine concerning the separation of powers between Church and State. Their view of what the Church’s role within society should be was remarkably different to its present position. They viewed Christianity not as a road to salvation, but rather as a practical guide in ethics and values to aid in conducting one’s life. To this they also proposed the abolition of tithes tax which supported the parish ministers, the election and voluntary financial support of local ministers as well as religious tolerance from the government. They also wanted the abolition of monopolies which had been granted to the great merchant families in London and a revision of the legal system which would make all men equal under the law, would no longer allow men to be imprisoned over debts and that all court proceedings take place in plain English rather than in Latin or Norman French so as to allow all men an understanding of what was happening and to make professional lawyers redundant. All of these demands were combined to form a proto constitution known as “The Agreement of the People”, which was drafted on three separate occasions between October, 1647 and May, 1648.

In the extremely hierarchical society of 15th century Britain, almost of these ideas if implemented would damage the lifestyles of the gentry and if all were to come into practice, the world which they knew would be utterly destroyed. Firstly if the Monarchy were replaced by a democratically elected Parliament who represented the wishes of the entire population, regardless of socio economic position and with the bulk of the nation’s inhabitants comprising of the lower orders, the focus of the government would shift towards appeasing the will of the less fortunate instead of maintaining the status quo. Also, the separation of Church and State suggested by the Levellers would remove the divine element of the King’s position as well as much of the Church’s political power. This was because at present the King was recognized as the Head of the Church and with his ability to influence its ideology to suit his own needs, religion, specifically the road to salvation was a very effective tool for propaganda and suppression of the masses. By removing this angle and changing Christianity into a more practical element as an ethical guide for life, the Church’s position of power could no longer be used as such a political force. If the community also appointed its own ministers and paid them through voluntary financial donations, it would be in each church leader’s best interests to conduct services in the most suitable way possible for the community for fear of personal economic hardship. The abolition of the royally granted monopolies to the great merchant families in London would also help to remove some of the economic hardship which the poor city dwellers endured. By allowing individuals or small businesses to compete openly with the great merchants, the quality of production would increase, the prices of goods would fall and the profits being made would be more evenly spread. This would lead to financial independence for the workers and another tool of the ruling class would be smashed. Finally, the revision of the legal system would have a great effect in that firstly by making the language of the law accessible to all, the number of lawyers who had spread like a plague and who constituted a portion of the gentry, in London specifically, would be out of work.


Although the term “Levellers”” did not come into use until late 1647, the public birth of the party is seen as being when a number of pamphlets were printed beginning with “A Remonstration of Many Thousands of Citizens”. This pamphlet written by Overton and Walwyn, built upon Lilburne’s revolutionary ideas on tolerance, egalitarianism and democratic government. A second pamphlet, “London’s Liberty in Chains Disclosed” written by Lilburne, dealt with the plight of the small craftsmen and the economic hardship imposed upon them by way of the monopolies controlled by the few. Another pamphlet “Regal Tyranny Discovered” appeared in January, 1647. Lilburne used this pamphlet to discredit the King, claiming his reign held no validity as the Norman Conquest had robbed the people of a once “free, egalitarian Anglo Saxon society” who had “governed themselves through representative assemblies.” (Shaw, P.47). These pamphlets were designed to appeal to the small traders in London as well as the other lower classes, yet only the city dwellers were listening as wide spread communication was not readily available in the 16th century. Although they did receive support from this group, collecting 10,000 signatures on a petition in London, their numbers were simply too small to effect any real change. However in March, 1647, a new window of opportunity appeared with signs of mutiny within the army. The Presbyterians dominated, Parliament had voted to disband the New Model Army with only the promise of six weeks arrears of pay, a fraction of what the army was owed and no provisions for those maimed or the families of those men killed in battle. Thanks in part to the Leveller ideas, regiments within the New Model Army began to elect representatives known as agitators, to speak on their behalf. The New Model Army became a political force itself, looking towards London to ensure that its interests were not ignored. Now that the Levellers had support from the New Model Army and the small craftsmen in London as well as the independent ministers in Parliament, they believed they had sufficient political clout for their cause and set about attacking the Presbyterian element who had decided to support the King in exchange for a new Presbyterian church administration. Yet the Levellers time in the sun was short lived. In 1648 the New Model Army led by Colonel Thomas Pride, purged the Parliament of many of the Presbyterian ministers leaving a rump of independents who vetoed any agreements with the King. The King was subsequently executed on January 10th, 1649. Also Oliver Cromwell who was a member of Parliament as well as a senior officer in the New Model Army arranged for the soldiers’ arrears to be paid. The combination of these two events virtually destroyed the Levellers power base and elbowed them out of the political arena.


Conclusion

The political star of the Levellers party shone briefly for two years, yet in the end their ability to bring their doctrine into a working form had the cards stacked against them for many reasons. Although it often appeared that they held a large amount of political clout, much of this was simply a reflection of the times. They existed in a time of economic hardship and political instability which allowed their ideas a certain amount of air. Yet the road they chose to travel simply was not intertwineable with the soceity in 17th century England. The people their ideas appealed to, namely the small merchants in London, were too low a group in numbers to weld any real power. They isolated many of the rural community by excluding wage earners from the Franchise whose numbers may have helped them. Also the groups they chose to pick their fights with were very strong. The political changes they wished to implement were often above the comprehension of the majority and once the New Model Army’s arrears had been met, the political aspect was really all they had left. Also, communication was a difficult task to overcome and due to this the Levellers simply could not mobilize the lower class to do their bidding. Finally, the majority of Britain was still very conservative and I believe much of the Levellers’ ideas were simply too radical to ever be accepted at the time.




BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hughes, A The Course of the English Civil War

Macmillan Press

Pease, T.C. The Levellers Movement

Peter Smith

Shaw, H The Levellers

Longmans, Green & Co Ltd.

Smith, A.G.R. The Emergence of a Nation State, nd Edition

Longman Group Limited

From Reader

Thomas, K. The Levellers & the Franchise



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