Monday, March 26, 2012

Lung Cancer

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What is this disease?





The disease in Lung Cancer, lung cancer is the most feared because it is the leading cancer killer in both men and women. There are two major types of lung cancer non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer; the non-small cell lung cancer is much more common; spreads to different parts of the body more slowly. Small cell lung cancer also called oat cell cancer; it is responsible for about 20% of all lung cancer.


What triggers this disease?

There are many things that trigger lung cancer; below are just a few examples

• Long-term exposure to exhaust fumes from diesel engines

• Tuberculosis

• Smoking on the job exposure

• Alcohol

• Asbestos

• Diet and Body Mass

• Radiation

• Marijuana

• Talcum Powder

• Vitamin A Excess or Deficiency


What environmental factors can cause this disease to present itself?

These are some the vast amount of reasons.

• Living with a heavy smoker ( some one who smokes a pack a day)

• Mining or working with asbestos

• Contact with radon gas

• Living in a smoke filled environment

• Being near or working at a gas station


Who gets this disease?

People who smoke

People that have a family genetic to get this disease

People who have long-term exposure to exhaust fumes from diesel engines or organic chemicals


Who takes care of the people with this disease?

People with lung cancer mainly have to basically try and survive on there own or with their family. Some people on the other hand are rich enough have nurses to take care of them.


How is this disease treated?

A doctor chooses which treatment the patient receives built on characteristics like the type, place, size and the degree of the tumor (if it will spread or not) and your overall health

Several of the treatments can be used in a combination

The following are the treatments


SURGERY may cure lung cancer. It is used in limited stages of the disease. The type of surgery depends on where the tumor is located in the lung. Some tumors cannot be removed because of their size or location.

DIATION THERAPY is a form of high energy X-ray that kills cancer cells. It is used

In combination with chemotherapy and sometimes with surgery

It usually offers relief from pain or blockage of the airways.

CHEMOTHERAPY is the use of drugs that are effective against cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be injected directly into a vein or given through a catheter, some chemotherapy drugs are taken by pill. Chemotherapy may be used

Can be used in conjunction with surgery.

In more advanced stages of the disease to relieve symptoms.

Can be used In all stages of small cell cancer.


How does Lung Cancer affect the person?

The affected person would experience another symptom is chest, shoulder or back pain, which feels like a constant ache that may or may not be related to coughing. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, repeated pneumonia or bronchitis, coughing up blood, hoarseness, or swelling of the neck and face.There may also be symptoms that do not seem to be at all related to the lungs. These may be caused by the spread of lung cancer to other parts of the body. Depending on which organs are affected, symptoms can include headaches, weakness, pain, bone fractures, bleeding, or blood clots.


Genetics

• Family history of lung cancer may play a role in increasing susceptibility to this disease

• People with parents or siblings with respiratory tract cancers had a 10% higher risk for lung cancer than people without a family history

• Women with mothers or sisters with lung cancer had triple the risk


How prevalent is lung cancer?

• Lung cancer is Americas number-three killer. It is responsible for one in seven deaths, or close to 5,000 each year White males deaths are decreasing but African American and among African American and White females are rising



What countries or populations have this disease?

About every single country on earth (that is inhabited) have had people die from lung cancer, about 5.4 million, 4 percent of, African American adults smoked cigarettes, approximately 1 percent of the 46.5 million adult smokers in the U.S. On average, African Americans tend to smoke brands with higher nicotine and tar levels. African Americans are also more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes. An estimated 45,000 African Americans die from smoking-related diseases yearly. smoking has declined among the white non-Hispanic population, tobacco companies have targeted both African Americans and Hispanics with intensive merchandising, which includes billboards, advertising in media oriented to these communities, and sponsorship of civic groups and athletic, cultural, and entertainment events


What type of research is being done with lung cancer?

The research that is going on with lung cancer right now is the HER /neu/C-erB and the EGFR.

HER /neu/C-erB gene is normally residing on long arm of chromosome #17 and produces HER protein ( 185 kDa ) interacting with Tyrosine Kinase, ( an enzyme ) and help cells to divide and grow. From recent study, 5 % of lung cancer had this gene amplified. The amplification of the HER /neu gene causes HER protein to be overproduced, so, cause the lung cancer cells to divide and increase in size very quickly. In order to combat this type of lung cancer, the scientists made monoclonal antibody specifically against HER protein. EGFR (Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor) gene.

This EGFR gene is normally residing on long arm of chromosome #7 and produces EGFR protein associated with Tyrosine Kinase Enzyme and functions as promoter to help cells to divide and grow. Over expression of EGFR gene will result in overproduction of EGFR protein, therefore making lung cancer cells to divide and grow faster. Monoclonal antibody against EGFR protein can be made and used for treatment of lung cancer cells that are over expressed by the EGFR protein.


Where is the disease being researched?

Where the disease is being researched is the United States and Europe but currently the treatment is being tested in the US and Europe but the researcher hope to bring it to Thailand.


How is it detected?

• chronic cough

• hoarseness

• coughing up blood

• weight loss & loss of appetite

• shortness of breath

• fever without known reason

• wheezing

• repeated bouts of bronchitis

• chest pain



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